Encyclopedia of Membranes

2016 Edition
| Editors: Enrico Drioli, Lidietta Giorno

Fouling due to Calcium Phosphate

  • Alice Antony
  • Pierre Le-Clech
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44324-8_1713

Calcium phosphate scaling occurrence is largely reported in reverse osmosis (RO) applications for the reclamation of wastewater (Chesters 2009; Greenberg et al. 2005; Zach-Maor et al. 2008). In municipal wastewater, phosphate levels typically range between 3 and 20 ppm, presenting a major operational challenge for systems designed to operate at high product recoveries. The crystalline forms of calcium phosphate are hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite, which are calcium orthophosphates with varying amounts of OH-, Cl-, and F-groups. Formation of hydroxyapatite occurs through autocatalytic solution-mediated transformation of highly unstable amorphous calcium phosphate, hydrolyzing rapidly to more stable hydroxyapatite microcrystals in water. The lifetime of metastable amorphous phase is strongly governed by the exact solution environment, with the presence of other additive molecules and ions, pH, ionic strength, and temperature affecting the lifetimes. The transformation of amorphous to...

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Further Reading

  1. Antony A, Low JH, Gray S, Childress AE, Le-Clech P, Leslie G (2011) Scale formation and control in high pressure membrane water treatment systems: a review. J Membr Sci 383:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringThe University of New South Wales, UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and TechnologySydneyAustralia