Encyclopedia of Membranes

2016 Edition
| Editors: Enrico Drioli, Lidietta Giorno

Fuel Cell Applications

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44324-8_1681
Fuel cell is an energy conversion device which converts chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity which can be used for light, heat, and shaft power. Therefore in principle fuel cell can replace heat engines for stationary power generation and transport applications. The main types of fuel cells are as follows (Table 1):
Fuel Cell Applications, Table 1

Fuel Cell Applications


Electrolyte phase

Operating temperature


Responsible ion

Molten carbonate fuel cell

Liquid electrolyte

500–650 °C

Molten carbonate


Phosphoric acid fuel cell

160–200 °C

Phosphoric acid


Alkaline fuel cell

60–220 °C

Liquid (KOH) immobilized


Solid oxide fuel cell

Solid electrolyte

600–850 °C

Ceramic YSZ


Polymer electrolyte fuel cell

−40–80 °C (120–180 °C HT)

Acid-doped solid polymer


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Building, Energy and Material TechnologyUniversity of TromsøNavrikNorway
  2. 2.Energy Technology Research GroupNarvik University College, Lodve Langes gt 2NavrikNorway