Encyclopedia of Membranes

2016 Edition
| Editors: Enrico Drioli, Lidietta Giorno

Ultrafine Nanofibers

  • Hongyang Ma
  • Benjamin S. Hsiao
  • Benjamin Chu
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44324-8_1540

Ultrafine nanofibers are nanofibers with typical fiber diameters ranging from 1 to about 10 nm. They can be fabricated by using a variety of techniques, such as self-assembly, electrospinning, or chemical catalysis. A novel technology has been developed to fabricate ultrafine polysaccharide nanofibers (e.g., ultrafine cellulose nanofibers) by using a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments on natural resources, such as wood, cotton, and crab/shrimp shell (chitin) (Ma et al. 2011). The fiber diameter of the achieved ultrafine nanofibers was 5–15 nm with various fiber lengths of a few hundred nanometers to a few microns. The chemical treatment, typically, is a selective oxidation of C6-hydroxyl groups in cellulose with the TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO aqueous system. After oxidation, a mechanical treatment, such as grind, sonication, or/and homogenization, is applied to defibrillate the fiber bundles. Therefore, ultrafine cellulose nanofibers with nominal fiber diameters of 5–15 nm in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ma HY, Burger C, Hsiao BS, Chu B (2011) Ultrafine polysaccharide nanofibrous membranes for water purification. Biomacromolecules 12:970–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ma HY, Burger C, Hsiao BS, Chu B (2012a) Highly permeable polymer membranes containing directed channels for water purification. ACS Macro Lett 1:723–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ma HY, Hsiao BS, Chu B (2012b) In: Wei Q (ed) Functional nanofibers and applications. Wood Publishing Limited, UK, pp 331–370, Chap. 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA