Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Method
Layer-by-layer (LbL) method (also known as LbL assembly, electrostatic self-assembly (ESA), or polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) technology) is a versatile method to form mutilayers on a solid support. The self-assembly method is driven by the electrostatic force between the precursor materials. Precursor materials to form mutilayers can be chosen from polyelectrolytes, biopolymers, clays, metal complex and their derivates, nanoparticles, dendrimers, and so on (Bertrand et al. 2000). The advantages of this method are the relatively simple process, independence of substrate properties (i.e., size, topology, materials, and so on), and formation of fuzzy structure. Therefore, LbL method has a potential to be applied in various applications including forming multicomposite films, nanoparticle modification, enzyme process, optic development, sensors, membrane for water treatment, fuel cell, and so on.