Forward Osmosis Membrane Reactor
The forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) is a new type of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, which combines two basic processes – biological degradation of organic wastes and membrane separation using forward osmosis (FO) – into a single process for various wastewater treatments (Zhang et al. 2012). Specifically, in a FOMBR, suspended solids and microorganisms responsible for biodegradation are separated from the treated water using a FO membrane module, where water is extracted from the mixed liquor through a semipermeable FO membrane to a high osmotic pressure draw solution (Achilli et al. 2009). The output from the FOMBR is a mixture of treated water permeate and the draw solution. A posttreatment step, such as reverse osmosis (RO) or membrane distillation (MD), can be used to produce purified water and to regenerate the draw solution.
Compared with conventional MBRs, where pressure-driven membrane filtration units are used, the FOMBR enjoys important...
- Nawaz MS, Gadelha G, Khan SJ, Hankins N (2013) Microbial toxicity effects of reverse transported draw solute in the forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FO-MBR). J Membr Sci 429:323–329Google Scholar