Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

2015 Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James (Jim) CleavesII, Daniele L. Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Daniel Rouan, Tilman Spohn, Stéphane Tirard, Michel Viso

Astronomical Data

  • Muriel Gargaud
  • William M. Irvine
  • Daniel Rouan
  • José Cernicharo Quintanilla
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44185-5_5069

Units and General Data

Distance units

Astronomical unit (AU)

1.495 978 707 00 × 1011 m

206 264.8 AU

1 parsec (pc)

3.085 677 6 × 1016 m

3.261 563 8 light-years

1 light-year

9.460730 × 1015 m

6.324 × 104 AU

Time units

1 sidereal day

23 h 56 mn 04.098 s (average time)

1 tropical year

365.2422 average solar days

1 sidereal year

365.2564 average solar days

Accessible universe

Number of galaxies

1011

Hubble parameter

70.6 km/s/Mpc = 2.2 × 10−18 s−1

Age

13.7 Gyr

Dark energy content

68.3 %

Dark matter content

26.8 %

Baryonic matter content

4.9 %

Our Milky Way galaxy

Number of stars

∼1011

Diameter

∼1021 m

Baryonic mass (stars + gas)

∼5 1010 MSun ∼ (1041 kg)

Dark matter mass (up to virial radius)

∼1012 MSun ∼ (2 1042 kg)

Distance of the Sun to the galactic center

2.4 1020 m (=8 kpc)

Sun

Radius

6.955 08 × 108 m

Mass

1.9891 × 1030 kg

Solar luminosity

3.845(8) × 1026 W

Core temperature

1.557 × 107 K

Core pressure

2.334 × 1016 Pa

Photosphere temperature

5,780 K

Corona temperature

2–3 × 106 K

Average...

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References

Astronomical References

  1. Anders E, Grevesse N (1989) Abundances of the elements: meteoritic and solar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:197–214CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Cox AN (ed) (2000) Allen’s astrophysical quantities. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. EDP Sciences (1998) Introduction aux éphémérides astronomiquesGoogle Scholar
  4. Lide DR (2001/2002) Handbook of chemistry and physics, 82nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. Mc Fadden LA, Weissman PR, Johnson TV (2007) Encyclopedia of the solar system, 2nd edn. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. McDonough WF (1998) Earth’s core. In: Marshall CP, Fairbridge RW (eds) Encyclopedia of geochemistry. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McDonough WF, Sun S-S (1995) Composition of the Earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. McDonough WF, Sun S-S, Ringwood AE, Jagoutz E, Hofmann AW (1992) Potassium, rubidium, and cesium in the Earth and Moon and the evolution of the mantle of the Earth. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56(3):1001–1012CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Rudnick RL, Fountain DM (1995) Nature and composition of the continental crust: a lower crustal perspective. Rev Geophys 33:267–309CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) The composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick RL (ed) The crust treatise on geochemistry. Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, pp 1–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1985) The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blackwell, Oxford, p 312Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muriel Gargaud
    • 1
  • William M. Irvine
    • 2
  • Daniel Rouan
    • 1
  • José Cernicharo Quintanilla
    • 2
  1. 1.LESIAObservatoire Paris-Site de MeudonMeudonFrance
  2. 2.Department of AstrophysicsLaboratory of Molecular AstrophysicsIorrejón de Ardoz, MadridSpain