Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

2015 Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James (Jim) CleavesII, Daniele L. Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Daniel Rouan, Tilman Spohn, Stéphane Tirard, Michel Viso


  • Hervé MartinEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44185-5_1904



Sanukitoids are intermediate to felsic igneous rocks which possess both modern crust characteristics (i.e., richness in K) and Archean TTG features (i.e., fractionated rare-earth element patterns). Most of them were emplaced between 2.7 and 2.3 Ga on Earth.


Sanukitoids, also called high-magnesium granodiorites, were first described by Shirey and Hanson (1984). They consist in a complete magmatic series, from diorite to granite, the most common facies consisting in monzodiorites and monzogranites. Typically they are rich in both K-feldspar phenocrysts and mafic minerals such as biotite and hornblende with sometimes subordinate amounts of clinopyroxene.

Sanukitoid can occur as plutons of all sizes, with a broad range of crustal emplacement levels and degrees of heterogeneity: sanukitoids in the Central Pilbara Craton, Western Australia (Smithies and Champion 1999), form small (<1 km), homogeneous stocks of shallow-emplaced...


Archean-Proterozoic transition Continental crust Mantle metasomatism 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Martin H, Moyen J-F, Rapp R (2009) The sanukitoid series: magmatism at the Archaean-Proterozoic transition. Earth Environ Sci Trans R Soc Edinb 100:15–33Google Scholar
  2. Moyen J-F, Martin H, Jayananda M (2001) Multi-element geochemical modelling of crust-mantle interactions during late-Archaean crustal growth: the Closepet granite (South India). Precambrian Res 112:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Shirey SB, Hanson GN (1984) Mantle derived Archaean monzodiorites and trachyandesites. Nature 310:222–224ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Smithies RH, Champion DC (1999) High-Mg diorite from the Archaean Pilbara Craton; anorogenic magmas derived from a subduction-modified mantle. Geol Surv West Austr Annu Rev 1998–1999:45–59Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansUniversité Blaise Pascal, OPGC, CNRS, IRDClermont-FerrandFrance