Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

2015 Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James (Jim) CleavesII, Daniele L. Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Daniel Rouan, Tilman Spohn, Stéphane Tirard, Michel Viso

Radial-Velocity Planets

  • David W. Latham
  • Nader Haghighipour
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44185-5_1839

Definition

Radial-velocity planets are those detected indirectly by observing the orbital motion of their host stars in response to the gravitational pull of the planets. The stellar motion is measured from the  Doppler effect on the stellar spectral lines.

History

In a system consisting of a star and a planet, because of the gravitational force of the planet on the star, the planet and its host star orbit their common center of mass. This causes variations in the distance of the star to the observer creating what is known as radial velocity. Measuring the velocities of stars along the line of sight dates back to more than a century ago. However, it has been only in the past couple of decades that technological advancements reached to the point where the precision was good enough to detect the very small accelerations of a host star induced by orbiting planets. The first serious survey using radial velocity to search for planets around other stars was pursued by a team of Canadian...

Keywords

Doppler shift Radial velocity Spectroscopic orbit 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Butler RP et al (1999) Evidence for multiple companions to Upsilon Andromedae. Astrophys J 526:916–927CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Campbell B, Walker GAH, Yang S (1988a) A search for planetary mass companions to nearby stars. In: Bioastronomy – the next steps; Proceedings of the ninety-ninth IAU Colloquium, Balaton, Hungary, 22–27 June 1987 (A88-55201 24-88). Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 83–90Google Scholar
  3. Campbell B, Walker GAH, Yang S (1988b) A search for substellar companions to solar-type stars. Astrophys J 331:902–921CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Delfosse X, Forveille T, Mayor M, Perrier C, Naef D, Queloz D (1998) The closest extrasolar planet. A giant planet around the M4 dwarf GL 876. Astron Astrophys 338:L67–L70ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Haghighipour N (2010) Planets in binary star systems. Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol 366. Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-8686-0Google Scholar
  6. Hatzes AP, Cochran WD, Endl M, McArthur B, Paulson DB, Walker GAH, Campbell B, Yang S (2003) A planetary companion to gamma Cephei A. Astrophys J 599:1383–1394CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Howard A et al (2010) The occurrence and mass distribution of close-in Super-Earths, Neptunes, and Jupiters. Science 330:653CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Latham DW et al (1989) The unseen companion of HD 114762 – a probable brown dwarf. Nature 339:38–40CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Marcy GW, Butler RP, Vogt SS, Fischer D, Lissauer JJ (1998) A planetary companion to a nearby M4 dwarf, Gliese 876. Astrophys J 505:L147–L149CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Marcy GW, Butler RP, Fischer D, Vogt SS, Lissauer JJ, Rivera EJ (2001) A pair of resonant planets orbiting GJ 876. Astrophys J 556:296–301CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Mayor M (2009) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A planetary system with 3 super-earths (4.2, 6.9, and 9.2 ME). Astron Astrophys 493:639–644CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Mayor M, Queloz D (1995) A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star. Nature 378:355–359CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Rivera E et al (2005) A ~7.5M planet orbiting the nearby star, GJ 876. Astrophys J 634:625–640CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Institute for AstronomyUniversity of Hawaii-ManoaHonolulu, HawaiiUSA