Encyclopedia of Parasitology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Opisthorchis viverrini

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43978-4_2231

Name

Greek: opisthen = behind; orchis = testicle. Latin: viverrinus = civet cat-like; thus the name is closely related to the position of the male sexual organs inside the worm and to one of the main final hosts. English: Civet cat worm.

Geographic Distribution/Epidemiology

These worms occur in Thailand, focally in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Japan, and India. About 20–30 millions of humans are estimated to be infected.

Morphology/Life Cycle

The adult translucent worms measure about 7–9 × 3–4 mm and can be morphologically differentiated at one side from Clonorchis by their testes (Fig. 1), which appear deeper lobulated than those of Opisthorchis felineus. In contrast to C. sinensis, there are always only four branches of each of the two testes. The life cycle runs similarly to that of Clonorchis sinensis.
Opisthorchis viverrini, Fig. 1

Light micrograph of an adult translucent worm of Opisthorchis viverrini. Note the two lobulated testes in the posterior region, the laterally situated vitellaria, and the windings of the coiled uterus in the central position

Symptoms of Disease

Diagnosis

The eggs look very similar to those of C. sinensis but are in mean somewhat smaller measuring about 25 × 15 μm.

Infection

Oral uptake of metacercariae in infected raw fresh water fish.

Prophylaxis

Avoid eating of raw or undercooked fish in endemic regions.

Incubation Period

Fourteen days.

Prepatent Period

Two to four weeks.

Patency

Many years.

Therapy

Further Reading

  1. Keiser J, Utzinger J (2009) Food-borne trematodiases. Clin Microbiol Rec 22:466–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mehlhorn H et al (1983) Ultrastructural investigations of the effects of praziquantel on human trematodes from Asia (Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, Opisthorchis viverrini, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum). Drug Res 33:91–98Google Scholar
  3. Sanpool O et al (2012) Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis. Parasitol Res 111:89–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Wonkchalee N et al (2012) Comparative studies on animal models for Opisthorchis viverrini infection: host interaction through susceptibility and pathology. Parasitol Res 110:1213–1223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Wonkchalee N et al (2013) A combination of praziquantel and the traditional medicinal plant Thunbergia laurifolia on Opisthorchis viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma in a hamster model. Parasitol Res 112:4211–4219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und Parasitologie, Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany