Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Thomas Kohnen

Refractive Surgery

  • Marko Ostovic
  • Thomas Kohnen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35951-4_365-4



Eye surgery used to correct refractive and eliminate or reduce a patients’ need for wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Basic Characteristics

One must differentiate between laser (flap and surface procedures) and non-laser refractive surgery.

Laser eye surgery can be divided into flap and surface procedures. Flap procedures include automated lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

Surface procedures are Epi-LASIK, laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).

Non-laser refractive surgery includes implantable lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments (Intacs), conductive keratoplasty (CK), astigmatic keratotomy (AK), radial keratotomy (RK), and limbal relaxing incisions (LRI). RK, AK, and LRI are counted among corneal incision procedures.


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Further Reading

  1. Albert DM, Miller JW, Azar DT (2008) Albert & Jakobiec’s principles & practice of ophthalmology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyGoethe-University Frankfurt am MainFrankfurt/MainGermany