Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Thomas Kohnen


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35951-4_1137-1


Antioxidants are protective factors against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). They may include zinc, beta-carotene, vitamin C and E, lutein/zeaxanthin, omega 3 fatty acid, and eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic acid.


According to The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) that was sponsored by the US National Eye Institute taking high levels of antioxidants and zinc can reduce the risk of developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by about 25 %. Additional research suggests that carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins may help to retard some of the destructive processes in the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that lead to age-related degeneration of the macula. From these findings, it is recommended that antioxidants are indicated in people who are at high risk for developing advanced AMD.


Allergy to any of the substances.

Use and Dosage

The specific daily amounts of antioxidants and zinc used by the study researchers were...

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Further Reading

  1. Cassileth B (2014) Survivorship: living well during and after cancer. Spry Publishing, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  2. Holz P et al Age related macular degeneration, 2nd edn. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  3. Labriola D (2000) Complementary cancer therapies. Three Rivers Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyTel Aviv Medical CenterTel AvivIsrael