Scanning Electron Microscope
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an instrument for imaging topography and for obtaining material information of conductive specimen using a focused beam of high-energy electrons. The electron beam is deflected in a magnetic field and performs a scanning movement in a raster pattern to capture the specimens’ surface. For imaging purposes interaction phenomena of the electron beam with the specimen like emission of secondary electrons (SE) or backscattered electrons (BSE) are detected and converted to grey values. A frequency analysis of X-rays reveals information about the present material. Nonconductive surfaces have to be covered with a conductive layer.
Theory and Application
- FEI Company (2016) An introduction to electron microscopy. Retrieved from http://www.fei.com/introduction-to-electron-microscopy/. Accessed 20 Jan 2016
- Hafner B (2007) Scanning electron microscopy primer. Retrieved from http://www.charfac.umn.edu/instruments/sem_primer.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2016
- McMullan D (1993) Scanning electron microscopy 1928–1965. Retrieved from http://www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk/125/achievements/mcmullan/mcm.htm. Accessed 20 Jan 2016
- Smith KCA (1997) Charles Oatley: a pioneer of the SCM. Retrieved from http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/∼bcb/cwo1.htm. Accessed 20 Jan 2016
- Zworykin VA, Hillier J, Snyder RL (1942) A scanning electron microscope. ASTM Bull 117:15–23Google Scholar