• Z. Cedric Xia
  • Jian Cao
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35950-7_6500-4



Springback is generally referred to as the change of part shape that occurs upon removal of constraints after forming.

Theory: Mechanics of Springback

Springback can be considered as a dimensional change which happens during unloading, due to the occurrence of primarily elastic recovery of the part. After springback the part reaches an internal equilibrium in the absence of external forces. Residual stresses still exist within the part; however, they are self-balanced. Take a simple bending case in Fig. 1, for example. Under the loaded condition of bending, the top surface is under tension, while the inner surface is under compression (Fig. 2a). During the unloading stage, one can consider...
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Copyright information

© CIRP 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Cedric Xia
    • 1
  • Jian Cao
    • 2
  1. 1.Research and Innovation CenterFord Motor CompanyDearbornUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNorthwestern University, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied ScienceEvanstonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Bernd-Arno Behrens
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM)Leibniz Universität Hannover (LUH)GarbsenGermany