CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Sami Chatti, Tullio Tolio

Residual Stresses in Machining Operations

  • Jose Outeiro
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35950-7_16811-1

Definition

By definition, the residual stresses are multiaxial static stresses that exist in an isolated component without any applied external force or moment, and they are in mechanical equilibrium. Residual stresses are the response to the mechanical and structural history of the component during its manufacturing (metal casting, metal forming, machining, heat treatment, etc.) and in service when submitted to external loadings (thermal, mechanical, and chemical). They are caused by the elastic response of the material to the heterogeneous plastic deformation at any scale of the component or structure.

Theory and Applications

Introduction

The quality of mechanical components depends on large extend on the surface integrity, which is characterized by the mechanical, metallurgical, and chemical states of the machined affected layers (Jawahir et al. 2011). The residual stresses, together with the hardness, yield stress, tensile strength, etc., characterize the mechanical state of the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Beaney EM (1976) Accurate measurement of residual stress on any steel using the center hole method. Strain 12(3):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brinksmeier E, Cammett JT, König W, Leskovar P, Peters J, Tönshoff HK (1982) Residual stresses – measurement and causes in machining processes. Ann CIRP 31(2):491–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brinksmeier E, Scholtes B, Wohlfahrt H (1994) Residual stresses in advanced surface finishing and joining. In: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on residual stresses. Society for experimental mechanics, Baltimore, 8–10 June, pp 579–588Google Scholar
  4. Capello E (2005) Residual stresses in turning. Part I: influence of process parameters. J Mater Process Technol 160(2):221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colwell LV (1954) Predicting the angle of chip flow for single-point cutting tools. ASME Trans 76:199–204Google Scholar
  6. Ghanem F, Braham C, Fitzpatrick ME, Sidhom H (2002) Effect of near-surface residual stress and microstructure modification from machining on the fatigue endurance of a tool steel. J Mater Eng Perform 11:631–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldstein M (1991) Optimierung der Fertigungsfolge “Kaltfließpressen – Spanen” durch Hartdrehen als Feinbearbeitungsverfahren für einsatzgehärtete Preßteile [Optimizing the Production Sequence: “Cold Extrusion-Machining” through hard turning as a fine finishing technique for case-hardened pressed parts.] PhD thesis, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (in German)Google Scholar
  8. Guo YB, Liu CR (2002) FEM analysis of mechanical state on sequentially machined surfaces. Mach Sci Technol 6(1):21–41MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Henriksen EK (1951) Residual stresses in machined surfaces. ASME Trans 73:69–76Google Scholar
  10. Jang DY, Watkins TR, Kozaczek KJ, Hubbard CR, Cavin OB (1996) Surface residual stresses in machined austenitic stainless steel. Wear 194(1–2):168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jawahir IS, Brinksmeier E, M’Saoubi R, Aspinwall DK, Outeiro JC, Meyer D, Umbrello D, Jayal AD (2011) Surface integrity in material removal processes: recent advances. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60(2):603–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kandil FA, Lord JD, Fry AT, Grant PV (2001) A review of residual stress measurement methods: a guide to technique selection. NPL report MATC(A)04, National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Materials Centre, TeddingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu CR, Barash MM (1982) Variables governing patterns of mechanical residual stress in a machined surface. J Manuf Sci Eng 104(3):257–264Google Scholar
  14. M’Saoubi R, Chandrasekaran H, Coulon B, Marques MJ, Outeiro JC (2008) Tool life and surface integrity in hard milling of hot work tool steels. In: Proceedings of the third CIRP high performance cutting conference, Dublin, 12–13 June 2008Google Scholar
  15. Mantle AL, Aspinwall DK (2001) Surface integrity of a high speed milled gamma titanium aluminide. J Mater Process Technol 118(1–3):143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Matsumoto Y, Barash MM, Liu CR (1986) Effect of hardness on the surface integrity of AISI 4340 steel. J Manuf Sci Eng 108(3):169–175Google Scholar
  17. Nobre JP, Kornmeier M, Dias AM, Scholtes B (2000) Use of the hole-drilling method for measuring residual stresses in highly stressed shot-peened surfaces. Exp Mech 40:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Noyan IC, Cohen JB (1987) Residual stress – measurement by diffraction and interpretation, society for experimental mechanics. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Outeiro JC (2002) Application of recent metal cutting approaches to the study of the machining residual stresses (in Portuguese) (PhD thesis), University of Coimbra, CoimbraGoogle Scholar
  20. Outeiro JC, Dias AM, Lebrun JL, Astakhov VP (2002) Machining residual stresses in AISI 316L steel and their correlation with the cutting parameters. Mach Sci Technol 6:251–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Outeiro JC, Dias AM, Jawahir IS (2006) On the effects of residual stresses induced by coated and uncoated cutting tools with finite edge radii in turning operations. Ann CIRP 55:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Outeiro JC, Dillon OW, Jawahir IS (2007) On designing for enhanced product sustainability by considering the induced residual stresses in machining operations. Presented at the proceedings of the 2007 ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, November 11–15, Seattle, Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Outeiro JC, Pina JC, M’Saoubi R, Pusavec F, Jawahir IS (2008) Analysis of residual stresses induced by dry turning of difficult-to-machine materials. CIRP Annal Manuf Technol 57:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Outeiro JC, Kandibanda R, Pina JC, Dillon OW Jr, Jawahir IS (2010) Size-effects and surface integrity in machining and their influence on product sustainability. Int J Sustain Manuf 2:112–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Scholtes B (1987) Residual stresses introduced by machining. In: Advance in surface treatments, technology-applications-effects, International guidebook on residual stresses. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 59–71Google Scholar
  26. Sharman ARC, Aspinwall DK, Dewes RC, Clifton D, Bowen P (2001) The effects of machined workpiece surface integrity on the fatigue life of gamma titanium aluminide. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 41:1681–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharman ARC, Hughes JI, Ridgway K (2015) The effect of tool nose radius on surface integrity and residual stresses when turning Inconel 718™. J Mater Process Technol 216:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sridhar BR, Devananda G, Ramachandra K, Bhat R (2003) Effect of machining parameters and heat treatment on the residual stress distribution in titanium alloy IMI-834. J Mater Process Technol 139:628–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thiele JD, Melkote SN, Peascoe RA, Watkins T (2000) Effect of cutting-edge geometry and workpiece hardness on surface residual stresses in finish hard turning of AISI 52100 steel. J Manuf Sci Eng 122:642–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Torbaty S, Moisan A, Lebrun JL, Maeder G (1982) Evolution of residual stress during turning and cylindrical grinding of a carbon steel. Ann CIRP 31(1):441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Umbrello D, Outeiro JC, M’Saoubi R, Jayal A, Jawahir IS (2010) A numerical model incorporating the microstructure alteration for predicting residual stresses in hard machining of AISI 52100 steel. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59(1):113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Withers PJ, Bhadeshia HKDH (2001) Residual stress. Part 1 – measurement techniques. Mater Sci Technol 17(4):355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arts et Metiers, Campus of ClunyClunyFrance

Section editors and affiliations

  • Garret O'Donnell
    • 1
  1. 1.Trinity College DublinDublinIreland