Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

Living Edition
| Editors: David A. Leeming


  • James Olusegun Adeyeri
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27771-9_200151-1

Radicalization is the process of making an individual or a group reject conventional/contemporary ideas for extreme social, religious, or political views and goals through exposure to extreme ideological information and belief system. Although some conceptualizations of radicalization equate it with violent extremism, radicalization can take violent or nonviolent forms. Radicalism is not necessarily negative or problematic except when it takes the form of violent actions toward achieving extreme aspirations. Thus, there is a distinction between a radical-a person who holds radical views and a violent radical-a person who seeks to actualize radical ideas through violence/terrorism. The causes, pathways, types, and objectives of radicalization vary. However, psychological and religious factors, which serve as tools for influencing people’s minds and changing what they think, feel, believe, and do, play significant roles in the process and manifestation of individual and group...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ahmed, M. (2017). How to stop online radicalization. www.edition.cnn.com/2017/06/05. Accessed 28 July 2017.
  2. Awan, A. (2007). Transitional religiosity experiences: Contextual disjuncture and Islamic political radicalism. In T. Abass (Ed.), Islamic political radicalism: A European comparative perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bellerose, N. (2015). What role does religion play in process of radicalization. Homegrown radicalization and counter-radicalization in Western Europe and North America. https://www.academia.edu/115221. Accessed 2 July 2017.
  4. Berman, E. (2009). Radical, religious, and violent: The new economics of terrorism. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  5. Borum, R. (2011). Rethinking radicalization. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(4), 1–6.Google Scholar
  6. Christmann, K. (2012). Preventing religious radicalization and violent extremism: A systematic review of the research literature. Huddersfield: Youth Justice Board for England.Google Scholar
  7. European Institute of Peace. (2017). How to prevent violent extremism and radicalization. www.eip.org/en/news-events/how. Accessed 27 July 2017.
  8. Fares, S. (2017). Grooming jihadists: The ladder of radicalization and its antidote. The counter jihad report. https://counterjihadreport.com. Accessed 1 July 2017.
  9. Francis, M. (2012). What causes radicalization? Main lines of consensus in recent research. Radicalization research. http: //www.radicalisationresearch.org. Accessed 18 June 2017.
  10. Global News. (2015). Terrorism, radicalization main threats to Canadian security: Spy agency. Global News. www.globalnews.ca/news.
  11. Institute of Community Cohesion. (2007). A window on extremism: Young people in hounslow-a study of identity, social pressures, extremism and social exclusion. ICOCO.Google Scholar
  12. Kleinmann, S. (2012). Radicalization of homegrown Sunni militants in the United States: Comparing converts and non-converts. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(4), 278–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kruklis, T. (2014). The process of radicalization. Small Wars Journal. February, 1–6Google Scholar
  14. Loza, W. (2007). The psychology of extremism and terrorism: A middle-eastern perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 144–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Neumann, P. (2005). Addressing the root causes of terrorism: The club de Madrid series on democracy and terrorism (Vol. 1). Madrid: Club de Madrid.Google Scholar
  16. Rahimi, B. (2017). The religious sources of Christian terrorism. Huffington Post. www.huffingtonpost.com/babak-ra.
  17. Report BSU 02/2008. Behavioral science operating briefing note: Understanding radicalization and violent extremism in the UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/. Accessed 16 June 2017.
  18. Ross, J. (2015). Religion and violence: An encyclopedia of faith and conflict from antiquity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Runciman, G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice: A study of attitudes to social inequality in 20th century England. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of History and International StudiesLagos State UniversityOjoNigeria