Encyclopedia of Pain

2007 Edition

Analgesic Guidelines for Infants and Children

  • Stephen C. Brown
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_200


Drug Guidelines; Pediatric Dosing Guidelines


The goal of administering analgesia is to relieve pain without intentionally producing a sedated state.


Oral Analgesics

Analgesics include acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids. While acetaminophen and opioids remain the cornerstone for providing analgesia for our youngest patients, the scope and diversity of drugs expand as those patients grow older.  Adjuvant analgesics include a variety of drugs with analgesic properties that were initially developed to treat other health problems. These adjuvant analgesics (such as anticonvulsants and antidepressants) have become a cornerstone of pain control for children with chronic pain, especially when pain has a neuropathic component.

Pain control should include regular pain assessments, appropriate analgesics and adjuvant analgesics administered at regular dosing intervals, adjunctive drug therapy for symptom and side-effects control...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Ahmedzai S, Brooks D (1997) Transdermal fentanyl versus sustained-release oral morphine in cancer pain: preference, efficacy, and quality of life. The TTS-Fentanyl Comparative Trial Group. J Pain Symptom Manage 13:254–261Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berde CB, Solodiuk J (2003) Multidisciplinary Programs for Management of Acute and Chronic Pain in Children. In: Schechter NL, Berde CB, Yaster M (eds) Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, 2nd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 471–486Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bray RJ, Woodhams AM, Vallis CJ et al. (1996) A double-blind comparison of morphine infusion and patient controlled analgesia in children. Paediatr Anaesth 6:121–127Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christensen ML, Wang WC, Harris S et al. (1996) Transdermal fentanyl administration in children and adolescents with sickle cell pain crisis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 18: 372–376Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hunt A, Goldman A, Devine T et al. (2001) Transdermal fentanyl for pain relief in a paediatric palliative care population. Palliat Med 15:405–412Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krane EJ, Leong MS, Golianu B et al. (2003) Treatment of pediatric pain with nonconventional analgesics. In: Schechter NL, Berde CB, Yaster M (eds) Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, 2nd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 225–241Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    McDonald AJ, Cooper MG (2001) Patient-controlled analgesia: an appropriate method of pain control in children. Paediatr Drugs 3: 273–284Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGrath PA, Brown SC (2004) Paediatric palliative medicine - Pain control. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Cherny N et al. (eds) Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 775–789Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McNeely JK, Trentadue NC (1997) Comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with and without nighttime morphine infusion following lower extremity surgery in children. J Pain Symptom Manage 13:268–273Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Noyes M, Irving H (2001) The use of transdermal fentanyl in pediatric oncology palliative care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 18:411–416Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rodgers BM, Webb CJ, Stergios D et al. (1988) Patient-controlled analgesia in pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg 23:259–262Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schechter NL, Berde CB, Yaster M (2003) Pain in infants, children, and adolescents, 2nd edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sentinel Event Alert (2004) Patient controlled analgesia by proxy: Joint Commission of Healthcare OrganizationsGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Hospital for Sick Children (2005) The 2004–2005 Formulary, 23rd edn. The Hospital for Sick Children, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Health Organization (1990) Cancer Pain Relief and Palliative Care. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaDivisional Centre of Pain Management and Pain ResearchThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenON, Canada