Encyclopedia of Pain

2007 Edition


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_179


Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation, which is normal before puberty, during pregnancy, or after menopause. Congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract, metabolic disorders (such as diabetes or obesity), and endocrine disorders (including altered pituitary, thyroid or ovarian function) are the most common causes of amenorrhea. Medications that alter hormonal status, including opioids, can also lead to amenorrhea. In some cases, emotional disorders can lead to a cessation of menses.

 Cancer Pain Management, Opioid Side Effects, Endocrine Changes and Sexual Dysfunction

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007