Zero Hunger

2020 Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökçin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Non-farm Employment: A Key Challenge to Achieve Zero Hunger

  • Anastasios MichailidisEmail author
  • D. Lazaridou
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95675-6_33

Definitions

The rural non-farm economy (RNFE) includes all rural economic activity outside of agriculture. It contains small- and large-scale activities; self-employment; wage employment in commerce, manufacturing, and service; full-time, part-time, formal, informal, seasonal, and episodic non-farm production (Haggblade et al. 2002).

Non-farm employment includes agro-processing, commerce, charcoal production, transport services, manufacturing, repair services, wage work, firewood gathering, and seasonal migration. Agro-processing, generally, includes processing of shea nuts, groundnuts, rice, and cotton ginnery. Other activities are related to trading in foodstuff such as maize, beans, grains, and sand winning and selling handicraft products (Owusu et al. 2011). These activities could take place at home, in factories, or by itinerant traders.

Food insecurity is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2014) as “a situation that exists when people...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Acheampong EN, Ozor N, Owusu ES (2014) Vulnerability assessment of northern Ghana to climate variability. Clim Chang 126(1–2):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackah C (2013) Nonfarm employment and incomes in rural Ghana. J Int Dev 25(3):325–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed MH, Melesse KA (2018) Impact of off-farm activities on technical efficiency: evidence from maize producers of eastern Ethiopia. Agric Food Econ 6(3):1–15Google Scholar
  4. Ahmed AU, Hill RV, Smith LC, Frankenberger T (2009) The poorest and hungry: characteristics and causes. In: von Braun J, Hill RV, Pandya-Lorch R (eds) The poorest and hungry: assessments, analyses, and actions. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, pp 107–128Google Scholar
  5. Alasia A, Weersink A, Bollman RD, Cranfield J (2009) Off-farm labour decision of Canadian farm operators: urbanization effects and rural labour market linkages. J Rural Stud 25:12–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson D, Leiserson MW (1980) Rural non-farm employment in developing countries. Econ Dev Cult Chang 28(2):227–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antoniades A, Papayiannis C (2001) Part-time farming in Cyprus. Agricultural economics report 40. Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus, ISSN 0379-0827Google Scholar
  8. Arif GM, Nazli H, Haq R (2000) Rural non-agricultural employment and poverty in Pakistan. Pak Dev Rev 39(4):1089–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asfaw A, Simane B, Hassen A, Bantider A (2017) Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: evidence from rainfed dependent smallholder farmers in Northcentral Ethiopia (Woleka subbasin). Dev Stud Res 4(1):22–36.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21665095.2017.1413411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Awoyemi TT (2004) Rural non-farm and poverty reduction in Nigeria. A report submitted to AERC, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  11. Babatunde RO, Qaim M (2010) Impact of non-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria. Food Policy 35(4):303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bessant KC (2000) Part-time farming situations among Manitoba farm operators: a typological approach. Can J Agric Econ 48(3):259–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biørn E, Bjørnsen H (2015) What motivates farm couples to seek off-farm labour? A logit analysis of job transitions. Eur Rev Agric Econ 42:339–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brodt S, Klonsky K, Tourte L (2006) Farmer goals and management styles: implications for advancing biologically based agriculture. Agric Syst 89:90–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Byerlee D, de Janvry A, Sadoulet E (2009) Agriculture for development: toward a new paradigm. Ann Rev Res Econ 1:15–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cervantes-Godoy D, Dewbre J (2010) Economic importance of agriculture for poverty reduction. OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries working papers no. 23. OECD Publishing, OECDGoogle Scholar
  17. da Silva JG (2009) Zero hunger and territories of citizenship: promoting food security in Brazil’s rural areas. In: von Braun J, Vargas Hill R, Pandya-Lorch R (eds) The poorest and hungry: assessments, analyses and actions. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, pp 367–374Google Scholar
  18. Davis J (2001) Conceptual issues in analysing the rural non-farm economy in transition economies. Natural Resources Institute report no 2635Google Scholar
  19. Davis B, Winters P, Reardon T, Stamoulis K (2009) Rural nonfarm employment and farming: household-level linkages. Agric Econ 40(2):119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis K, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A (2017) Are African households (not) leaving agriculture? Patterns of households’ income sources in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 67:153–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (2010) Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high. International hunger targets difficult to reach. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/al390e/al390e00.pdf
  22. FAO (2014) The state of food insecurity in the world 2014. Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferreira FHG, Lanjouw P (2001) Rural non-farm activities and poverty in the Brazilian Northeast. World Dev 29(3):509–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghana News Agency (GNA) (2015) Women and children, victims of malnutrition. Accra: Author.Google Scholar
  25. Giannakis E, Efstratoglou S, Antoniades A (2018) Off-farm employment and economic crisis: evidence from Cyprus. Agriculture 8(3):41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gillespie J, Mishra A (2011) Off farm employment and reasons for entering farming as determinants of production enterprise selection in US agriculture. Aust J Agric Resour Econ 55:411–428.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2011.00542.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gladwin CH, Thomson AM, Paterson JS, Anderson AS (2001) Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers. Food Policy 26(2):177–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haggblade S, Hazell P, Reardon T (2002) Strategies for stimulating poverty alleviating growth in the rural non-farm economy in developing countries. EPTD Discussion Paper No. 92. Washington, DC: Environment and Production Technology Division, IFPRI, and Rural Development Department, World BankGoogle Scholar
  29. Haggblade S, Hazell P, Reardon T (2010) The rural non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction. World Dev 38:1429–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hilson GM, Garforth CJ (2012) ‘Agricultural poverty’ and the expansion of artisanal mining in Sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from Southwest Mali and Southeast Ghana. Popul Res Policy Rev 31(3):435–464.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-012-9229-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoang TX, Pham CS, Ulubasoglu MA (2014) Non-farm activity, household expenditure, and poverty reduction in rural Vietnam: 2002–2008. World Dev 64:554–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hossain MJ, Al-Amin AKMA (2018) Non-farm income and consumption expenditures in rural Bangladesh: empirical evidence from multilevel regression modelling. J Quant Econ 1–20Google Scholar
  33. Ibnouf FO (2009) The role of women in providing and improving household food security in Sudan: implications for reducing hunger and malnutrition. J Int Womens Stud 10:144–167Google Scholar
  34. Imai KS, Gaiha R, Thapa G (2015) Does non-farm sector employment reduce rural poverty and vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India. J Asian Econ 36:47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (2016) Global hunger index: getting to zero hunger. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.  https://doi.org/10.2499/9780896292260. Accessed 15 Oct 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jonasson E, Helfand SM (2010) How important are locational characteristics for rural non-agricultural employment? Lessons from Brazil. World Dev 38(5):727–741.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lanjouw J, Lanjouw P (2001) The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. Agric Econ 26:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lanjouw P, Shariff A (2004) Rural non-farm employment in India: access, incomes and poverty impact. Econ Polit Wkly 39(40):4429–4446Google Scholar
  39. Lanjouw P, Murgai R, Stern N (2013) Nonfarm diversification, poverty, economic mobility, and income inequality: a case study in village India. Agric Econ 44(4–5):461–473Google Scholar
  40. Little PD, Kevin S, Barbara CA, Layne CD, Christopher B (2001) Avoiding disaster: diversification and risk management among East African herders, Development and ChangeGoogle Scholar
  41. Ma W, Abdulai A, Goetz R (2018) Agricultural cooperatives and investment in organic soil amendments and chemical fertilizer in China. Am J Agric Econ 100(2):502–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Madaki JU, Adefila JO (2014) Contributions of rural non-farm economic activities to household income in Lere Area, Kaduna State of Nigeria. Int J Asian Soc Sci 4(5):654–663Google Scholar
  43. Mechlem K (2004) Food security and the right to food in the discourse of the United Nations. Eur Law J 10(5):631–648.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0386.2004.00235.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mishra AK, Khanal AR (2017) Assessing food security in rural Bangladesh: the role of a nonfarm economy. In: World agricultural resources and food security. Frontiers of economics and globalization, vol 17. Emerald Publishing, Bingley, pp 241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mishra AK, Mottaleb KA, Mohanty S (2015) Impact of off-farm income on food expenditures in rural Bangladesh: an unconditional quantile regression approach. Agric Econ 46(2):139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morton JF (2007) The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(50):19680–19685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mulley B, Unruh J (2004) The role of off-farm employment in tropical forest conservation: labor, migration, and smallholder attitudes towards land in western Uganda. J Environ Manag 71:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nah SL, Chau CF (2010) Issues and challenges in defeating world hunger. Trends Food Sci Technol 21:544–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nastis S, Michailidis A (2020) Agricultural productivity: supporting the United Nation’s sustainable development goals. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals: Zero hunger, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  50. O’Hara P (1998) Partners in production? Women, farm and family in Ireland. Berghahn Books, New York/OxfordGoogle Scholar
  51. Oseni G, Winters P (2009) Rural nonfarm activities and agricultural crop production in Nigeria. Agric Econ 40(2):189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Owusu V, Abdulai A, Abdul-Rahman S (2011) Non-farm work and food security among farm households in Northern Ghana. Food Policy 36:108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reach Consultant Ltd, Canadian Hunger Foundation (2013) Assessment of CIDA’s food security strategy and funding in Ethiopia. Canadian Food Security Policy Group, Ottawa. http://www.ccic.ca/_files/en/working_groups/2013_07_29_Ethiopia_Report_FSPG.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2019Google Scholar
  54. Reardon T (1997) Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa. World Development 25(5): 735–748Google Scholar
  55. Reardon T, Stamoulis K, Balisacan A, Cruz ME, Berdegué J, Banks B (1998) Rural non-farm income in developing countries. The state of food and agriculture 1998. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 283–356Google Scholar
  56. Reardon T, Taylor JE, Stamoulis K, Lanjouw P, Balisacan A (2000) Effects of nonfarm employment on rural income inequality in developing countries: an investment perspective. J Agric Econ 51(2):266–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sani S (2017) Rural households’ towards off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities in Assosa Zone, Western Ethiopia. J Agric Econ Ext Rural Dev 5(1):579–589Google Scholar
  58. Schlenker W, Lobell DB (2010) Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture. Environ Res Lett 5:014010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sergaki P, Michailidis A (2020) Small-SCALE FOOD Producers: Challenges and implications for SDG2. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals: Zero hunger, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  60. Tran TQ (2015) Nonfarm employment and household income among ethnic minorities in Vietnam. Econ Res Ekonomska Istraživanja 28(1):703–716.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2015.1087872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tura HA (2017) Linking land rights and the right to adequate food in Ethiopia: normative and implementation gaps. Nord J Hum Rights 35(2):85–105.  https://doi.org/10.1080/18918131.2017.1312860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tuyen TQ (2014) A review on the link between nonfarm employment, land and rural livelihoods in developing countries and Vietnam. Ekonomski Horizonti 16:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. UN (1982) A world charter for nature. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. von Grebmer K, Bernstein J, Nabarro D, Prasai N, Amin S, Yohannes Y, Sonntag A, Patterson F, Towey O, Thompson J (2016) 2016 Global hunger index: getting to zero hunger. Welthungerhilfe/International Food Policy Research Institute/Concern Worldwide, Bonn/Washington, DC/Dublin.  https://doi.org/10.2499/9780896292260. Accessed on 10 Oct 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vlontzos G (2020) Research and innovation towards sustainable development goals in agriculture encyclopedia of the UN sustainable development goals: Zero hunger, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  66. Wu SH, Ho CT, Nah SL, Chau CF (2014) Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54(2):151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zereyesus YA, Embaye W, Tsiboe EF, Amanor-Boadu V (2017) Implications of non-farm work to vulnerability to food poverty-recent evidence from northern Ghana. World Dev 91:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural EnvironmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Forest Economics, Faculty of Forestry and Natural EnvironmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran