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Polymer Scaffolds for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tissue Engineering

  • Fiona Serack
  • Nathaniel Holwell
  • Brian G. AmsdenEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)

Abstract

There is a clear clinical need to generate effective tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) for reconstructive surgery. A variety of polymeric materials, scaffold designs, cell sources, and bioreactor conditions have been explored for this purpose. It is the objective of this chapter to introduce the structure and function of a healthy anterior cruciate ligament, outline the desirable properties of an effective tissue engineering approach, and review the current directions in generating an effective replacement tissue through rationale choice of scaffold design and material, cell source, and culture conditions. While significant progress has been made, and a greater understanding of the challenges involved has been gained, there has yet to be a replacement tissue engineered ACL suitable for clinical translation.

List of Abbreviations

ACL

Anterior cruciate ligament

ACLFs

ACL fibroblasts

ASC

Adipose-derived stem/stromal cell

BMSC

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell

ECM

Extracellular matrix

GRGDS

Glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine amino acid sequence

IKVAV

Isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine amino acid sequence

MCL

Medial collateral ligament

MGC

N-methacrylated glycol chitosan

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cell

PCL

Poly(ε-caprolactone)

PCLDLLA

Poly(ε-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide)

PDLL

Poly(D,L-lactide)

PEGDA

Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate

PG

Poly(glycolide)

PL

Poly(lactide)

PLCL

Poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)

PLL

Poly(L-lactide)

RGD

Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Serack
    • 1
  • Nathaniel Holwell
    • 1
  • Brian G. Amsden
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied SciencesQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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