Diversity, Ecology, and Significance of Fungal Endophytes

  • Kandikere R. SridharEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Fungal mutualistic association with plant species has become one of the important emerging contemporary issues in biology. Non-mycorrhizal endophytic fungal studies have multifold interest owing to their basic and applied value. Various tissues (leaf, stem, bark, seed, root, rhizome, and tuber) of a wide array of phototrophs (forest trees, plantations, shrubs, medicinal plants, vegetables, macrophytes, seaweeds, seagrass, ferns, and orchids) occurring in different ecosystems (terrestrial, riparian, freshwaters, mangroves, marine, marshes, and coastal sand dunes) have attracted the attention of researchers. The main focus of such interest is to understand their coevolution, life history, lifestyle, diversity, ecology, stress tolerance, natural products, biological control, bioprospects, and bioremediation. Climate change and anthropogenic interference on biodiversity have dramatic impact on the mutualistic association between plant species and endophytic fungi. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview on endophytic fungal studies carried out in different plant species, ecological perspectives, methods, and applications in different fields.


Mutualism Natural products Biological control Bioprospects Bioremediation Techniques 



Arbuscular mycorrhizal


Basic local alignment search


Carbohydrate active enzymes


Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Dark septate endophytes




Human immunodeficiency virus


Internal transcribed spacer


Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry


Large subunit


Mitogen-activated protein


Operational taxonomic unit


Plant cell wall degrading enzyme


Retinal-binding protein


Restriction fragment length polymorphism




Ribonucleic acid


Scanning electron microscopy


Small subunit


Transcription enhancer factor


Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry


Volatile organic compound



The author acknowledges the award of UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India. The author is grateful to the Mangalore University for the award of adjunct professorship.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesMangalore UniversityMangaloreIndia

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