Endophytes of Ginseng

  • Hosakatte Niranjana MurthyEmail author
  • Dayanand Dalawai
  • So-Young Park
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is a well-known medicinal plant which is used as a tonic in oriental medicine. Ginsenosides are the most important secondary metabolites of ginseng which have pharmacological effects including anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-stress properties. Bacterial and fungal endophytes associated with ginseng plants have been isolated, characterized from its natural distribution range. Endophytes of ginseng showed tissue or organ, age, genotype, and geographical location specificity with their distribution and abundance. Bacillus, Burkholderia, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas are major bacterial genera isolated from ginseng. Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Entrophospora, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Setophoma, Verticillium, and Xylaria are the most frequent fungal genera isolated from ginseng. Majority of ginseng endophytes depicted many of biological activities such as plant growth promotion, antimicrobial, antitumor, ginsenoside biosynthesis, and biotransformation activities. In this chapter we presented the recent progress made in the area of biology of ginseng endophytes.


Bioactive compounds Biotransformation Endophytes Ginseng Ginsenosides Saponins Secondary metabolites 



Adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (lung cancer cell line)


Murine tumor cell line


Colonization frequency


Colony-forming units


Human epithelial type G2 (liver cancer cell line)


High-performance liquid chromatography


Indole-3-acetic acid


50% inhibition concentration


Leukemia 1210


Mouse fibroblast cell line


Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy


Human epithelial cell line


Human gastric cancer cell line


Mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy


Human epithelial carcinoma cell line of the ovary (ovarian cancer cell line)


Potato dextrose broth



This study was supported by DST-PURSE-Phase II program and UGC-BSR mid-career award grant [No. F.19-223/2018(BSR)].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dayanand Dalawai
    • 1
  • So-Young Park
    • 2
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyKarnatak UniversityDharwadIndia
  2. 2.Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural TechnologyChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea

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