The Interaction Between Plants and Bacterial Endophytes Under Salinity Stress

  • Amr Fouda
  • Saad El Din HassanEmail author
  • Ahmed Mohamed Eid
  • Emad El-Din Ewais
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Salinity leads to a decline in agricultural production and an increase in the percentage of salinity-affected land which exceeds 20% of the world’s cultivated land. Endophytes are a class of endosymbiotic microorganisms widely distributed among plants and colonize intercellular and intracellular spaces of all plant compartments and do not cause any apparent infection or significant morphological change. Furthermore, endophytes have many beneficial effects on host plants including adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress such as salinity through different activities including the production of scavengers like reactive oxygen species that are produced in plants when exposed to salinity, production of ACC deaminase enzyme which is responsible for lowering the levels of ethylene in the plant, nitrogen fixation, production of compatible solutes, antibiotics, and phytohormones. The use of endophytic microbes is of particular interest in the development of agricultural applications that ensure improved performance of crops under salinity stress.


Endophytes Endophyte-plant interaction Salinity stress Salt tolerance Plant adaptation Phytohormones ACC deaminase 



Abscisic acid


1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate


Electrical conductivity


Electrical conductivity of the saturation extract


Exchangeable sodium percentage


Indole-3-acetic acid


Induced systemic resistance


Reactive oxygen species


Sodium absorption ratio


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amr Fouda
    • 1
  • Saad El Din Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed Mohamed Eid
    • 1
  • Emad El-Din Ewais
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceAl-Azhar UniversityNasr City/CairoEgypt

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