Colony Collapse Disorder
Pollinator populations have been in decline globally, and the increased mortality rates of managed honey bee colonies have been a conspicuous part of this alarming trend . One particular syndrome by which a honey bee colony’s population dies or disappears within a short time span is termed colony collapse disorder, or CCD in short . While the plight of pollinators in general and CCD in honey bees in particular have brought increased public attention, it is important to note that, while mortality has increased in managed honey bees, their population numbers are not in decline either in the USA or globally. CCD must not be equated with all reasons of colony mortality. Furthermore, the syndrome is largely a North American malady with the underlying causes yet to be identified .
It is open to debate and interpretation when CCD was first observed and described. While reports of unexplained losses or mortality date back more than a century, in 2004–2006 commercial beekeepers in...