Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker


  • Brian R. MarkerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_136


Earth science


Study of the Earth’s structure, constituent materials, Earth processes, and the development of life, from the Earth’s formation to the present day.

The science of geology considers:
  • Earth materials (minerals, rocks, soils, and contained water and gases)

  • Surface and subsurface Earth structures and the ways that they form

  • Earth processes within, and at, the surface of, the planet

  • Earth history from the formation of Earth to recent times

It draws on the fundamental disciplines of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and biology. Geoscientists require a working appreciation of all of these but, depending on their specializations, more detailed appreciation of some. Specializations can be academic or applied (Table 1). Introductory texts on some aspects include Parriaux ( 2009), Plummer et al. ( 2016), and Pohl ( 2011).
Geology, Table 1

Current subdisciplines of geology


Study of crystalline substances for identification and determining of physical...

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  1. Anon (2016) Fundamentals. Chapter 10 Physicalgeography.net. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10c.html. Accessed 24th June 2017
  2. Parriaux A (2009) Geology: basics for engineers. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 590ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Plummer C, Carlson D, Hammersley L (2016) Physical geology, 15th edn. McGraw-Hill Education, Columbus. 672ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Pohl WL (2011) Economic geology: principles and practice. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken. 678ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LondonUK