Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky, Brian Marker

Geological Structures

  • Rafi AhmadEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73568-9_135


Deformation structures; Tectonic structures


Geological structures are defined geometrically as features superimposed on rocks and landforms through the action of stresses arising from inherent Earth forces, gravity, and/or temperature, which distort rocks and change their original form and shape, as well as their location. Such changes referred to as deformation may occur from submicroscopic to regional scales.


Structure is an inherent geometric attribute of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Primary structures such as bedding (Fig. 1a), dykes, veins, and joints are characteristic of sedimentary and igneous rocks. Tectonic structures are superimposed geological structures on preexisting rocks by deformational processes related to tectonic plate movement forces. Preexisting rocks respond to deformation through the mechanisms of folding, shear rupture, extensional fracture, and changes to rock fabric (Twiss and Moores 2006). These structures...
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Grateful thanks to Jerry DeGraff for reviewing the manuscript and helpful suggestions. Special thanks to Nasima for her patient support and cooperation during the winter vacations.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mona GeoInformatics InstituteUniversity of the West IndiesKingstonJamaica
  2. 2.Department of GeographyJamia Millia University (A Central University)New DelhiIndia