Life on Land

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Biodiversity Erosion: Causes and Consequences

  • Paulo A. V. BorgesEmail author
  • Rosalina Gabriel
  • Simone Fattorini
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71065-5_78-1

Synonyms

Definitions

Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth at any level of organization, from molecules to ecosystems. Thus, it includes all organisms and their populations, the genetic variation among them, and their complex assemblages into communities and ecosystems (Convention of Biological Diversity 1992). Biodiversity is therefore a multifaceted concept. Traditionally, biodiversity studies consider three forms of diversity: taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic. Taxonomic diversity (TD) includes the variety of species (or other systematic ranks) occurring at any scale and the differences in species composition among sites/areas. It can be measured in many ways, including alpha diversity (number of taxa within a particular site/area), beta diversity (the difference in species composition between sites/areas), and gamma diversity (the accumulated diversity from several sites) (Magurran 2004). Functional diversity(FD)...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paulo A. V. Borges
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rosalina Gabriel
    • 1
  • Simone Fattorini
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c) /Azorean Biodiversity Group and Univ. dos Açores, Depto de Ciências e Engenharia do AmbienteAngra do Heroísmo, AçoresPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Life, Health & Environmental SciencesUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anabela Marisa Azul
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal