Life on Land

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Mangrove Forests: Ecology, Management, and Threats

  • Prity L. Biswas
  • Shekhar R. BiswasEmail author
Living reference work entry



Mangroves are typically defined as the halophytic woody plant communities that occur along the tropical and subtropical coastlines (Biswas et al. 2012). According to Tomlinson (1986), a true mangrove species should have complete fidelity to the mangrove environment, has the ability to form pure stands, possesses morphological and physiological specialization for adaptation to mangrove habitat, and is usually taxonomically isolated from their terrestrial relatives. On the other hand, the term mangrove ecology refers to the ecological characteristics of both mangrove species and mangrove forests, and the term threats to mangrove forest refers to the stressors that usually lead to decline in quantity and quality of a mangrove forest (McKee 1996).


The halophytic plant communities along the tropical and subtropical coastlines are termed as mangroves (Biswas et al. 2012). Several other...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Ecological and Environmental SciencesEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sharif Ahmed Mukul
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ManagementIndependent University, BangladeshDhakaBangladesh