Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Human Settlements and Climate Change

  • Jelena ŽivkovićEmail author
Living reference work entry


Human settlement is a place where people live. It refers to the totality of human community with all the social, material, organizational, spiritual, and cultural elements that sustain it. Any form of human dwelling, from the smallest house to the largest city, where group of people reside and pursue their life goals, can be understood as settlement. Human settlements come in many forms and can be permanent and temporary, rural and urban, mobile and sedentary, disseminated and agglomerated.


A great variety of settlements exists worldwide today reflecting human needs, abilities, and aspirations, as well as social, political, and economic relations. In this chapter, human settlements will be presented by reviewing their general characteristics, classifications, and hierarchies, as well as specificities of urban and rural settlements, their historical development, and the contemporary challenges they face.

Characteristics of Human Settlements

Characteristics that...
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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Belgrade – Faculty of ArchitectureBelgradeSerbia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Federica Doni

There are no affiliations available