Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Risks and Opportunities Due to Climate Change

  • Dara V. GaevaEmail author
  • Galina M. BarinovaEmail author
  • Eugene V. KrasnovEmail author
Living reference work entry


Risks associated with climate change are caused by a number of hazards: some of them acting indirectly and slow (such as changes in temperature and precipitation leading to droughts, creation of favorable conditions for invasive plant species and new pests) while others are rapid and directly (such as tropical storms, floods, and heat waves, causing a peaks in urban mortality) (UNFCCC 2007).

Climate-related risk: The potential for consequences where something of value (health and human life, food security, infrastructure, etc.) is at stake and where the outcome is uncertain, recognizing the diversity of values. Risk here is a probability of occurrence of hazardous events (floods, hurricanes) or trends (increase in droughts’ occurrence and duration) multiplied by the impacts if these events or trends occur and result from the interaction of vulnerability, exposure, and hazard (IPCC 2014).

Emergent risk: “A risk that arises from the interaction of phenomena in a complex...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service for organization of scientific research activityImmanuel Kant Baltic Federal UniversityKaliningradRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Management, Urban Development and Spatial Planning (IEMUD&SP)Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal UniversityKaliningradRussia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Dragan Nonic
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Forestry Economics and OrganisationUniversity of Belgrade - Faculty of ForestryBelgradeSerbia