Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Environmental Investments

  • Suzana Lović ObradovićEmail author
Living reference work entry


The word environment is derived from the French word “environ” which means “surrounding.” The term was coined by Scottish philosopher and writer Thomas Carlyle in 1828, translating the word “Umgebung” in a work by Goethe (Jessop 2012).

Park (1980) deems that environment refers to the sum total of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time.

Timoshenko (1998) suggested a broad definition: “‘environment’ includes abiotic and biotic components, including air, water, soil, flora, fauna and the ecosystem formed by their interaction” and might even include “cultural heritage, features of the landscape and environmental amenity,” but it excluded private property. Cunningham and Cunningham (2002) defined environment as the circumstances and conditions (physical conditions) that surround (and affect) an organism or group of organisms or the social and cultural conditions that affect an individual or community.

A lot of actions are referred to as “investment,”...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić”Serbian Academy of Sciences and ArtsBelgradeSerbia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Dragan Nonic
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Forestry Economics and OrganisationUniversity of Belgrade - Faculty of ForestryBelgradeSerbia