Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)

  • Krishna RokaEmail author
Living reference work entry


The concept of adaptation originated from evolutionary biology in the 1970s and 1980s. It is often categorized as planned or autonomous, reactive, or anticipatory. It also involves process with goals to reduce vulnerability (Naess 2013). Since then it has been widely applied in both social and ecological systems to prepare for disasters and minimize risks. Below are some of the definitions that are widely used by various groups:

The IPCC Third Assessment Report defines adaptation as, “adjustment in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli, and their effects or impacts. This term refers to changes in processes, practices or structures to moderate or offset potential damages or to take advantages of opportunities associated with changes in climate” (McCarthy et al. 2001).

Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyWinona State UniversityWinonaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Dragan Nonic
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Forestry Economics and OrganisationUniversity of Belgrade - Faculty of ForestryBelgradeSerbia