Climate Action

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Adaptation and Mitigation Synergies and Trade-Offs

  • Marco FreyEmail author
  • Federica GasbarroEmail author
Living reference work entry



Mitigation (of climate change): “human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs)” (IPCC 2014a).

Adaptation (to climate change): “the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects in order to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities” (IPCC 2014a).

Synergy: “The interaction of adaptation and mitigation so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their effects if implemented separately” (Klein et al. 2007: 749).

Trade-off: “A balancing of adaptation and mitigation when it is not possible to carry out both activities fully at the same time (e.g., due to financial or other constraints)” (Klein et al. 2007: 749).

Differences Between Mitigation and Adaptation

Mitigation and adaptation are two complementary strategies for addressing the risks of climate change (IPCC 2014b). Mitigation of climate change refers to a “human intervention...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPisaItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Federica Doni

There are no affiliations available