Sustainable Cities and Communities

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Food Security

  • Issa Ibrahim Berchin
  • Wellyngton Silva de Amorim
  • José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade GuerraEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71061-7_18-1

Synonyms

Definition

The definition of food security within the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is based on the statement from the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action: FAO’s formal definition of food security is “when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO 1996).

Aiming to ensure food security for all, at all times, the World Food Summit (FAO 1996) declared seven commitments:
  • We will ensure an enabling political, social, and economic environment designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace, based on full and equal participation of women and men, which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all.

  • We will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all, at all times, to sufficient, nutritionally adequate, and safe food and its effective utilization.

  • We will pursue participatory and sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and rural development policies and practices in high- and low-potential areas, which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household, national, regional, and global levels, and combat pests, drought, and desertification, considering the multifunctional character of agriculture.

  • We will strive to ensure that food, agricultural trade, and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and market-oriented world trade system.

  • We will endeavor to prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery, rehabilitation, development, and a capacity to satisfy future needs.

  • We will promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investments to foster human resources, sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry systems, and rural development, in high- and low-potential areas.

  • We will implement, monitor, and follow up this plan of action at all levels in cooperation with the international community.

FAO also identifies four main dimensions of food security, physical availability of food, economic and physical access to food, food utilization, and stability of the other three dimensions over time (FAO 2008, 2009). National availability to food signifies that there should be enough food supply for a determined population to guarantee that people have access to adequate and sufficient nutrition. Households’ access to food can be categorized into two pillars: economic and physical. Economic availability is determined by income, food prices, and through access to social assistance. Physical access is already related to availability and quality of infrastructure which guarantee access to nutrition. Thus, the concept of stability can also be categorized into two pillars: vulnerability and shocks. Both relate to the risks of climate change, international trade oscillation, and political instability, which are all capable of jeopardizing food security.

Stability has a fundamental role to promote and maintain food security. This has been increasingly discussed in the past few years when searching for the forces which cause variation in food availability. Food stability relies on matters of climate and weather, technologies, and methods of production (Anderson 2018).

Although the increasing knowledge of the four pillars of food security have served to a facilitate better understanding of availability, access, utilization, and stability within food systems, it seems that the notion of “pillars” brought a misleading representation that these dimensions were statistics, separating ones from the others. However, these pillars are interdependent, and to measure food security, one can attribute particular weights and values (e.g., 25% for each), varying according to the particularities of each community, country, or region (Berry et al. 2015).

Food insecurity exists when there are problems in food production and/or consumption. The most affected by food security are those whose living conditions are most precarious and exposed to natural and/or anthropogenic stresses (Gould 2017). Thus, food insecurity can be chronic, when it persists for a long time and is usually generated by long periods of poverty, or it can be transitory, when it is temporary or occurs in a short period and it can be generated by the lack of access to food, due to low food production, financial instability, or other events (FAO 2008).

Strategies to promote food security deal with several challenges and pressures on food resources that can be applied to the national or household scale (Gould 2017).

Introduction to the Challenges of Environmental, Demographic, and Economic Changes

Ensuring food security is one of the main challenges of the twenty-first century, particularly in developing countries (Tendall et al. 2015). Worldwide, undernourishment affects 815 million people, and poor nutrition causes nearly 3.1 million children deaths each year, particularly in developing countries where 12.9% of the population is undernourished (United Nations 2018a).

Industrial and consumers’ demands for natural and nonrenewable resources increase the challenge of ensuring food security for all in a growing population scenario coupled with increasing environmental changes. To overcome these challenges will require an aptitude of policymakers, industries, civil society, and other stakeholders to manage food security in a scenario of global risks, guaranteeing that high standards of food quality continue into the future.

Agriculture plays a key role in alleviating poverty, improving food security, and raising households’ income, by employing 40% of today’s global population (United Nations 2018a). Thus, considering that up to 80% of food consumed in the developing world comes from small farms, investing in smallholders contributes to improve food and nutrition security (United Nations 2018a).

Food insecurity due to its correlation with low income affects the poor population more intensely. Poverty causes food insecurity, hunger, and malnutrition, leading to poor physical and cognitive development, which may result in low productivity that perpetuates poverty (FAO 2008). In developing countries, households spend more than half of their income on food purchase (Tendall et al. 2015). Hence, considering that, proportionally, the poorer you are, the more you spend on food, famine and food insecurity will result from poverty and the lack of access to financial resources (Bickel et al. 2000; Holden and Ghebru 2016).

As stated above, “food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO 1996). Therefore, in an ever-changing world facing population growth, resources scarcity, economic changes, urbanization, massive migration, climate and environmental changes, growing aging population, and changing patterns of consumer choices and food consumption (Tendall et al. 2015; Fan and Brzeska 2016; King et al. 2017), stablishing food security for all, at the global level, will require local strategies and initiatives adapted to the local reality but also aligned with global cooperation and partnership to support them.

The continuity of the “status quo” through the strategies currently adopted by governments to increase food production is no longer enough. Global changes will require profound changes in land management, in resource use, and in the consumption and production patterns (McCarthy et al. 2018). Observing these challenges, the United Nations (2015) launched the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through the Agenda 2030, aiming:

To end poverty and hunger everywhere; to combat inequalities within and among countries; to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies; to protect human rights and promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources. We resolve also to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and sustained economic growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all, taking into account different levels of national development and capacities.

In a changing world expected to reach nine billion people in few decades, ensuring sustainable food and nutrition security for all is at the core of the United Nations SDGs (King et al. 2017). Accordingly, Goal 2 “Zero Hunger” aims to “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture” (United Nations 2018a). Some of the opportunities to achieve food security are discussed in the next section.

Achieving Food Security in a Changing World: Opportunities from Public Policies, Technological Innovation, Capacitation, Financial Resources, and Partnership and Cooperation

Global food security is a major challenge that should be addressed regionally (Belesky 2014). To increase food security locally and nationally, food production should be handled by smaller and more localized production, which contributes to lower food prices and more local development (Chaifetz and Jagger 2014; Thornton and Herrero 2014; Belesky 2014; Matacena 2016).

Despite their inability to intervene in global markets, national authorities play key role in ensuring global food security by handling food production between large producers and smallholders while ensuring sustainability and social inclusion (Oosterveer et al. 2014; Shete and Rutten 2015). However, strengthening partnerships with nongovernmental organizations, academia, and other sectors of civil society are equally important and contribute to the formulation of environmentally sustainable food security policies, which can promote gender equality and reduce the effects of climate change on food production (Magalhães 2014).

Despite the significant decrease, the number of people living in the rural poor is still higher than in the urban area (FAO 2016). Aiming to reduce poverty in rural areas and increase food security, public policies need to support small farms by increasing their access to technologies and financial resources (Larson et al. 2016; Devereux 2016; King et al. 2017), opening up possibilities for rural communities and family farmers to adapt to climate change that negatively impacts their livelihood and makes them highly vulnerable (Makuvaro et al. 2018).

Smallholder agriculture is essential to global food security, especially in developing countries, which creates more jobs and increases families’ incomes (Tscharntke et al. 2012; Nehring et al. 2017; Larson et al. 2016). Large-scale farms produce great amount of food, and such farmers have more resources to invest in equipment, techniques, and technologies, using less human capital, therefore contracting less employees, whereas small farmers employ, proportionally, more people, in more concentrated spaces, contributing to regional development, poverty alleviation, and local food security (Shete and Rutten 2015; Otsuka et al. 2016; Larson et al. 2016; van Vliet et al. 2015).

One of the greatest threats to family farmers and smallholders is the lack of access to resources, therefore reducing their possibilities to invest in technologies and other mechanisms to enhance their production, productivity, and resilience (FAO 2016; Tirivayi et al. 2016; Nehring et al. 2017). Hence, stabilizing incomes and food prices is essential to maintain consistent food security, and it can be achieved by increasing insurance to producers, by guaranteeing employment creation, by providing financial aid to poor people, by food aid (i.e., in extreme cases), and by price interventions and food supply management (Devereux 2016; Tirivayi et al. 2016; Nehring et al. 2017).

Policy interventions are necessary to face long-term poverty and food scarcity (Just and Gabrielyan 2016; Pérez-Escamilla 2012); however, good governance is essential to meet global demands for food security without compromising sustainable development (Lele et al. 2013; Iglesias and Garrote 2015; Pérez-Escamilla 2012).

Food security governance can be stablished by ensuring “clear, participatory and responsive planning, decision making and implementation”; “efficient, effective, transparent, and accountable institutions”; “respect for the rule of law, and equality and fairness in resource allocation and service delivery”; and “coherent and coordinated policies, institutions, and actions” (Pérez-Escamilla 2012, p. 120).

Among the initiatives to promote food security mapped in the literature are:
  • Financial aid: Financial aid policies aim at guaranteeing financial transfers to complement extremely poor families’ income, reducing poverty and increasing food security (United Nations 2018a; Devereux 2016; Larder et al. 2015; Dimitri et al. 2015; von Braun 2008).

  • Food aid: Food aid policies aim at supporting poor families living in food insecurity, also improving the quality and quantity of food consumed (United Nations 2018a; Wilkinson 2015; Clark et al. 2015; Broussard et al. 2014; Lentz and Barrett 2013; Ninno et al. 2007).

  • Technical support and technologies: Technical support policies aim to guarantee investments (also appealing to international cooperation) in rural infrastructure, technological development, and researches to increase crop productivity. Also, providing farmers with mechanisms to produce food in a competitive manner (United Nations 2018a; Vermeulen et al. 2013; Tilman et al. 2011; Lynch et al. 2000; Carvalho 2006; Fan and Brzeska 2016; King et al. 2017; Welch and Graham 1999; Foster and Rosenzweig 1995).

  • Capacity building: Capacity-building policies aim at training and allowing farmers to produce effectively and through sustainable practices, increasing their productivity and food security (United Nations 2018a; Terry 2014; Klerkx et al. 2009; Pratley 2008; Ayele and Wield 2005; Raynolds et al. 2004; Folke et al. 2002; Foster and Rosenzweig 1995).

  • Land tenure management/food production: Land tenure management and food production policies aim to guarantee sustainable farming practices by supporting practices to increase agricultural productivity while conserving and improving soil quality. Also, enforcing a fair production system, by registering all producers and promoting agrarian reforms (United Nations 2018a; Holden and Ghebru 2016; Clark et al. 2015; Garnett et al. 2013; Gebbers and Adamchuk 2010; Fan and Brzeska 2016; Godfray et al. 2010; Jakobsen et al. 2007; Sanchez 2000; Maxwell and Wiebe 1999).

  • Strong institutions, solid infrastructure, and assistance policies: The development of solid and transparent mechanisms for development and security helps to build resilience for households and small farmers, helping to promote and ensure food security for all at all times. These mechanisms can be translated into the availability of financial, social, legal, technological, and technical assistance, insurances, and stakeholder’s engagement, among others (United Nations 2018a; Fan and Brzeska 2016; Tendall et al. 2015; Haysom and Tawodzera 2018; King et al. 2017).

  • Identify, categorize, and monitor: Policies to identify, categorize, and monitor are important to develop databases and increase the efficiency when developing and implementing plans regarding food and nutrition security, poverty alleviation, land use, and climate change (United Nations 2018a; Fritz et al. 2015; Carletto et al. 2015; Brosnan and Sun 2004; Dramstad et al. 2001; King et al. 2017; Haysom and Tawodzera 2018; Lynch et al. 2000).

These initiatives to promote food security meet both pressing demands of food insecurity (e.g., due to chronic causes or transitory crises), which are palliative solutions (i.e., financial aid and food aid), and lasting demands for food security, helping communities to develop competences and increase their resilience in the long term (i.e., technical support and technologies; capacity building; land tenure management/food production; strong institutions, solid infrastructure, and assistance policies; and identify, categorize, and monitor), meeting sustainability standards.

The global chains of food supply compose all activities related to the processing and transport of food, and it has become more heterogenous, globalized, cooperative, and highly distributed (Badia-Melis et al. 2014), involving other activities such as supplying raw materials, parts, and assemblies and storing and tracking of products that are distributed to numerous channels of distribution.

Resilient food systems help to ensure “sufficient, appropriate and accessible food to all,” promoting food security to all at all times, despite environmental, social, political, or economic disturbances (Tendall et al. 2015, p. 19). Further explaining these categories of food system resilience, Tendall et al. (2015, p. 19) elucidate that sufficient means “sufficient quantity and nutritional quality of food”; appropriate encompasses “the notions of culturally, technically and nutritionally appropriate food”; and accessible means “physically and economically accessible.” Together and being able to ensure the functioning of these categories in times of disturbance promote stability and resilience to the system, matching the four dimensions of food security as understood by the FAO (2008).

In order to maintain food security on track and measure its path, it is necessary to develop and apply assessment mechanisms. However, food security is a multidimensional and multiscale phenomenon that requires holistic and comprehensive approaches, such as food system approach (Haysom and Tawodzera 2018). The food system approach is particularly relevant for urban areas, considering that the world is becoming increasingly urbanized, while food security assessment tools still tend to focus on the rural context (Haysom and Tawodzera 2018).

Half of the world’s population already live in cities, and this percentage is expected to grow in the next years, including in the developing world (United Nations 2018b). This increase of urban population stresses cities’ infrastructure and resources, intensifying its challenges; causing an increase of slums; limiting access to treated water, sewage, clean energy, proper houses, roads, and infrastructure; threatening food security; and increasing pollution and wastes. In 2014, about 30% (nearly 880 million people) of the global urban population already lived in slum-like conditions, increasing their vulnerability (United Nations 2018b). This reality makes the relationship between smart cities, governance, and food even more complex (Sonnino 2009, 2016), bringing new challenges to the urban food systems, which should manage how food is produced, processed, distributed, and sold (Grewal and Grewal 2012; Maye 2018).

Therefore, in this scenario where food represents one of the principle challenges for humanity and particularly for large urban centers, cities also become a vital part of the solution as global actors, fundamental for the planning of a food system (Moragues-Faus 2017; Morgan and Sonnino 2010; Sonnino 2009). That is, the questions related to “urban food” became a new normal, where food and agricultural practices began to be discussed by municipal authorities, municipal advisors, and social urban movements (Derkzen and Morgan 2012). Effectively, some cities already work with their food systems in an organized urban scale, such as New York, Manchester and Toronto.

In this regard, actions such as urban agriculture demonstrate optimistic results, revolutionizing the actual food systems (Dieleman 2017), mostly in developing countries, which rely on rural production (Amar-Klemesu 2000). Thus, it contributes to the decrease of organic waste disposal, improving the functioning of the urban ecosystems and guaranteeing a low-carbon economy, since supply chains, when shortened, often require a smaller amount of fossil fuel for transport (Ferreira et al. 2018).

Despite critiques, urban agriculture emerges as a strategy to improve food security and dietary diversity in cities, shortening the distance between food production and consumption, also improving access to fresh food in cities (FAO 2018; Warren et al. 2015; Badami and Ramankutty 2015). Worldwide, about 800 million people practice urban agriculture, including for commerce (FAO 2018). Thus, urban farming also contributes to reduce families’ expenditure with food (Poulsen et al. 2015), enabling them to invest in other needs like education and health.

Cross-References

References

  1. Anderson JR (2018) Concepts of Stability in Food Security. Reference Module in Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-100596-5.22315-9[WA1]
  2. Amar-Klemesu M (2000) Urban agriculture and food security, nutrition and health. Thematic paper 4Google Scholar
  3. Ayele S, Wield D (2005) Science and technology capacity building and partnership in African agriculture: perspectives on Mali and Egypt. J Int Dev 17:631–646.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badami MG, Ramankutty N (2015) Urban agriculture and food security: a critique based on an assessment of urban land constraints. Glob Food Sec 4:8–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Badia-Melis R, Garcia-Hierro J, Ruiz-Garcia L, Jiménez-Ariza T, Villalba JIR, Barreiro P (2014) Assessing the dynamic behavior of WSN motes and RFID semi-passive tags for temperature monitoring. Comput Electron Agric 103:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belesky P (2014) Regional governance, food security and rice reserves in East Asia. Glob Food Sec 3:167–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berry EM, Dernini S, Burlingame B, Meybeck A, Conforti P (2015) Food security and sustainability: can one exist without the other? Pub Health Nutri 18(13):2293–2302.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s136898001500021xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J (2000) Measuring food security in the United States. Guide to measuring household food security, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/FSGuide.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2018
  9. Brosnan T, Sun DW (2004) Improving quality inspection of food products by computer vision – a review. J Food Eng 61:3–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00183-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broussard NH, Dercon S, Somanathan R (2014) Aid and agency in Africa: explaining food disbursements across Ethiopian households, 1994–2004. J Dev Econ 108:128–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2014.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carletto C, Jolliffe D, Banerjee R (2015) From tragedy to renaissance: improving agricultural data for better policies. J Dev Stud 51:133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carvalho FP (2006) Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety. Environ Sci Pol 9:685–692.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Derkzen P, Morgan KJ (2012) Food and the City: The Challenge of Urban Food Governance. In: Viljoen, A. and Wiskerke, J. S. C. eds. Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice, Wageningen: Wageningen University Press, pp. 61–66Google Scholar
  14. Chaifetz A, Jagger P (2014) 40 years of dialogue on food sovereignty: a review and a look ahead. Glob Food Sec 3:85–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dieleman H (2017) Urban agriculture in Mexico City; balancing between ecological, economic, social and symbolic value. Journal of Cleaner Production 163, S156–S163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark JK, Sharp J, Dugan KL (2015) The agrifood system policy agenda and research domain. J Rural Stud 42:112–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2015.10.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Devereux S (2016) Social protection for enhanced food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 60:52–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.03.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dimitri C, Oberholtzer L, Zive M, Sandolo C (2015) Enhancing food security of low-income consumers: an investigation of financial incentives for use at farmers markets. Food Policy 52:64–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dramstad WE, Fry G, Fjellstad WJ, Skar B, Helliksen W, Sollund ML, Tveit MS, Geelmuyden AK, Framstad E (2001) Integrating landscape-based values – Norwegian monitoring of agricultural landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 57:257–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00208-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fan S, Brzeska J (2016) Sustainable food security and nutrition: demystifying conventional beliefs. Glob Food Sec 11:11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO (1996) Rome Declaration on World Food Security. World Food Summit, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.HTM. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  22. FAO (2008) An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. FAO, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  23. FAO (2009) Declaration of the World Food Summit on food security. Available at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/Summit/Docs/Declaration/WSFS09_Draft_Declaration.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2018
  24. FAO (2016) Climate change and food security: risks and responses. FAO, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5188e.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  25. FAO (2018) Urban agriculture. Available at http://www.fao.org/urban-agriculture/en/. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  26. Ferreira J, Esteves B, Cruz-Lopes L, Evtuguin DV, Domingos I (2018) Environmental advantages through producing energy from grape stalk pellets instead of wood pellets and other sources. International Journal of Environmental Studies 1–15Google Scholar
  27. Folke C, Carpenter S, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS, Walker B (2002) Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO J Hum Environ 31:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foster AD, Rosenzweig MR (1995) Learning by doing and learning from others: human capital and technical change in agriculture. J Polit Econ 103:1176–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fritz S et al (2015) Mapping global cropland and field size. Glob Chang Biol 21:1980–1992.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garnett T et al (2013) Sustainable intensification in agriculture: premises and policies. Science 341:33–34.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1234485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gebbers R, Adamchuk VI (2010) Precision agriculture and food security. Science 327:828–831.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Godfray HCJ et al (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–818.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gould G (2017) “Nutrition: A world of insecurity”, Nature 544, online.Google Scholar
  34. Grewal SS, Grewal PS (2012) Can cities become self-reliant in food? Cities 29(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haysom G, Tawodzera G (2018) “Measurement drives diagnosis and response”: gaps in transferring food security assessment to the urban scale. Food Policy 74:117–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.12.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Holden ST, Ghebru H (2016) Land tenure reforms, tenure security and food security in poor agrarian economies: causal linkages and research gaps. Glob Food Sec 10:21–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Iglesias A, Garrote L (2015) Adaptation strategies for agricultural water management under climate change in Europe. Agric Water Manag 155:113–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.03.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jakobsen J, Rasmussen K, Leisz S, Folving R, Quang NV (2007) The effects of land tenure policy on rural livelihoods and food sufficiency in the upland village of Que, North Central Vietnam. Agric Syst 94:309–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2006.09.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Just DR, Gabrielyan G (2016) Why behavioral economics matters to global food policy. Glob Food Sec 11:26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. King T, Cole M, Farber JM, Eisenbrand G, Zabaras D, Fox EM, Hill JP (2017) Food safety for food security: relationship between global megatrends and developments in food safety. Trends Food Sci Technol 68:160–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.08.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klerkx L, Hall A, Leeuwis C (2009) Strengthening agricultural innovation capacity: are innovation brokers the answer? Int J Agric Resour Gov Ecol 8:409–438Google Scholar
  42. Larder N, Sippel SR, Lawrence G (2015) Finance capital, food security narratives and Australian agricultural land. J Agrar Chang 15:592–603.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joac.12108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Larson DF, Muraoka R, Otsuka K (2016) Why African rural development strategies must depend on small farms. Glob Food Sec 10:39–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lele U, Klousia-Marquis M, Goswami S (2013) Good governance for food, water and energy security. Aquat Procedia 1:44–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2013.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lentz EC, Barrett CB (2013) The economics and nutritional impacts of food assistance policies and programs. Food Policy 42:151–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.06.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lynch T, Gregor S, Midmore D (2000) Intelligent support systems in agriculture: how can we do better? Anim Prod Sci 40:609–620.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EA99082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCarthy N, Lipper L, Zilberman D (2018) Economics of Climate Smart Agriculture: An Overview. In Climate Smart Agriculture (pp. 31–47). Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  48. Magalhães R (2014) Evaluation of public policies and initiatives in food and nutrition security: dilemmas and methodological perspectives. Cien Saude Colet 19(5):1339–1346.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232014195.12202013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Makuvaro V, Walker S, Masere TP, Dimes J (2018) Smallholder farmer perceived effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and adaptation strategies. J Arid Environ 152:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matacena R (2016) Linking alternative food networks and urban food policy: a step forward in the transition towards a sustainable and equitable food system? Int Rev Soc Res 6:49.  https://doi.org/10.1515/irsr-2016-0007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maxwell D, Wiebe K (1999) Land tenure and food security: exploring dynamic linkages. Dev Chang 30:825–849.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maye D (2018) ‘Smart food city’: conceptual relations between smart city planning, urban food systems and innovation theory. City Cult Soc.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccs.2017.12.001
  53. Moragues-Faus A (2017) Emancipatory or neoliberal food politics? Exploring the “politics of collectivity” of buying groups in the search for egalitarian food democracies. Antipode 49(2):455–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morgan K, Sonnino R (2010) The urban foodscape: world cities and the new food equation. Cam J Reg Econ Soc 3(2):209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nehring R, Miranda A, Howe A (2017) Making the case for institutional demand: supporting smallholders through procurement and food assistance programmes. Glob Food Sec 12:96–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ninno C, Dorosh PA, Subbarao K (2007) Food aid, domestic policy and food security: contrasting experiences from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 32:413–435.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oosterveer P, Adjei BE, Vellema S, Slingerland M (2014) Global sustainability standards and food security: exploring unintended effects of voluntary certification in palm oil. Glob Food Sec 3:220–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Otsuka K, Liu Y, Yamauchi F (2016) Growing advantage of large farms in Asia and its implications for global food security. Glob Food Sec 11:5–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pérez-Escamilla R (2012) Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance? Glob Food Sec 1:120–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2012.10.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Poulsen MN, McNab PR, Clayton ML, Neff RA (2015) A systematic review of urban agriculture and food security impacts in low-income countries. Food Policy 55:131–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pratley J (2008) Workforce planning in agriculture: agricultural education and capacity building at the crossroads. Farm Policy J 5:27–41Google Scholar
  62. Raynolds LT, Murray D, Leigh Taylor P (2004) Fair trade coffee: building producer capacity via global networks. J Int Dev 16:1109–1121.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sanchez PA (2000) Linking climate change research with food security and poverty reduction in the tropics. Agriculture. Ecosys Environ 82:371–383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00238-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shete M, Rutten M (2015) Impacts of large-scale farming on local communities’ food security and income levels – empirical evidence from Oromia region, Ethiopia. Land Use Policy 47:282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.01.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sonnino R (2009) Feeding the city: Towards a new research and planning agenda. Int Plan Stud 14(4):425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sonnino R (2016) The new geography of food security: exploring the potential of urban food strategies. Geo J 182(2):190–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tendall DM, Joerin J, Kopainsky B, Edwards P, Shreck A, Le QB, Kruetli P, Grant M, Six J (2015) Food system resilience: defining the concept. Glob Food Sec 6:17–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.08.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Terry W (2014) Solving labor problems and building capacity in sustainable agriculture through volunteer tourism. Ann Tour Res 49:94–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thornton PK, Herrero M (2014) Climate change adaptation in mixed crop–livestock systems in developing countries. Glob Food Sec 3:99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Befort BL (2011) Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:20260–20264.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1116437108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tirivayi N, Knowles M, Davis B (2016) The interaction between social protection and agriculture: a review of evidence. Glob Food Sec 10:52–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Wanger TC, Jackson L, Motzke I, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Whitbread A (2012) Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biol Conserv 151:53–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. United Nations (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld. Accessed 27 Feb 2018
  74. United Nations (2018a) Goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg2. Accessed 27 Feb 2018
  75. United Nations (2018b) Goal 11: make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg11. Accessed 27 Feb 2018
  76. van Vliet JA, Schut AGT, Reidsma P, Descheemaeker K, Slingerland M, van de Ven GWJ, Giller KE (2015) De-mystifying family farming: features, diversity and trends across the globe. Glob Food Sec 5:11–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vermeulen SJ et al (2013) Addressing uncertainty in adaptation planning for agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:8357–8362.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219441110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. von Braun J (2008) Food and financial crises: implications for agriculture and the poor. International Food Policy Research Institute. Available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6289061.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2018
  79. Warren E, Hawkesworth S, Knai C (2015) Investigating the association between urban agriculture and food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status: a systematic literature review. Food Policy 53:54–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.03.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Welch RM, Graham RD (1999) A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs: productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crop Res 60:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00129-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wilkinson J (2015) Food security and the global agrifood system: ethical issues in historical and sociological perspective. Glob Food Sec 7:9–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.12.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Issa Ibrahim Berchin
    • 1
  • Wellyngton Silva de Amorim
    • 1
  • José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability (Greens)Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (Unisul)FlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance (C-EENRG), Department of Land EconomyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Samuel Borges Barbosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of ViçosaRio ParanaíbaBrazil