Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Demand Response: A Nordic Perspective

Living reference work entry


Due to the efforts in climate change mitigation, there is a strong global will to increase the amount of low-emission energy sources, especially wind and solar power, to the power system. In addition to climate change, other environmental issues, the opening of the electricity markets, increased reliability requirements, and aging of network assets have set and will further set new requirements for power systems. An often-quoted concept is the so-called smart grid. There are different definitions for smart grid. The European Regulators’ Group for Electricity and Gas (ERGEG) defines smart grid as follows (ERGEG 2010): “Smart Grid is an electricity network that can cost efficiently integrate the behaviour and actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to ensure economically efficient, sustainable power system with low losses and high levels of quality and security of supply and safety.” This definition describes in a way an...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Electrical EngineeringTampere UniversityTampereFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Matti Sommarberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Management and BusinessTampere UniversityTampereFinland