Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Eco-efficiency: Concept, Indicators and Applications

Living reference work entry


Eco-efficiency encompasses the idea of economic growth with the conscious use of resources, aiming to reduce costs by the efficient use of materials and energy while providing the needs and desires of the clients. Eco-efficiency can be measured and monitored by indicators, which consider the ratio between the economic benefits and the environmental influence of production and services. It pursues the goal of generating welfare to the population with less negative environmental impacts, incentivizing product innovation through ecodesign, reengineering of processes and by valorizing greener products and services. In this perspective, the eco-efficiency goal is to reach the human needs by using the minimum natural resources, respecting its support capacity.


Eco-efficiency has been under discussion for about two decades now. Its application ranges among different sectors and scales, presenting an opportunity for small enterprises, companies, and governments to...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Department, College of Agriculture and VeterinarySanta Catarina State UniversityLagesBrazil

Section editors and affiliations

  • Md. Mahmudul Alam
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Economics, Finance and BankingUniversiti Utara MalaysiaSintokMalaysia