Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Affordable and Clean Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy

Living reference work entry



According to United Nations Development Program, affordable energy means clean energy and the sources are solar, wind, and thermal (UNDP 2015). “Affordability” clearly is a meaningful word; but its meaning changes depending on horizons of time and space. Although majority of the people by the term affordable energy means low carbon, environment friendly renewable energy, however, to some energy efficiency, coal or nuclear energy are affordable energy.


The origin of the affordable energy concept lies in the concept of Sustainable Development. According to a report “Our common future” published by Brundtland Commission in 1987, the world leaders decided that sustainable development can be the solution to environmental degradation problem faced by world citizens (United Nations 1987). Although leaders decided to follow sustainable development policies in 1980s, this decision was the result of...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IIUM Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance (IIiBF)International Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Md. Mahmudul Alam
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Economics, Finance and BankingUniversiti Utara MalaysiaSintokMalaysia