Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Biofuel and Biogas Policies: Economic, Regulatory, and Sustainability Challenges

Living reference work entry



Biofuels and biogas are both part of the broader category of bioenergy, which in turn can be defined as heat, electricity, and/or power derived from biomass (WBA 2019). Adopting the definition of biofuels and biogas provided in the EU legal framework, under Article 2 of the 2018 Renewable Energy Directive (Directive (EU) 2018/2001), this contribution defines biofuels as “liquid fuels for transport produced from biomass” and biogasas “gaseous fuels produced from biomass.” According to this definition, biofuels have their exclusive application in the transport sector, whereas biogas also includes additional applications, for example, for heating and power generation. Therefore, solid biofuels (e.g., fuelwood, wood residues, wood pellets) and liquid biofuels used for purposes other than transport fall outside the scope of this contribution, although they can be included in broader...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Freie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Haruna Musa Moda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health ProfessionsManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK