Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Clean Energy Solutions and Sustainable Development

  • Felix Kwabena Donkor
  • Kevin Mearns
Living reference work entry


Clean energy denotes the array of fuel options obtained from mostly renewable, low emissions sources such as bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy, and wind energy with minimal impact on the environment or environmentally friendly (IPCC 2011).

There are several ways to defining energy efficiency. There is the ecosystem-related approach whereby energy efficiency refers to the capacity to safeguard the integrity of the ecosystem while providing optimum energy services (Omar 2008). Other explanations denote energy efficiency, as the use of minimum energy to supply the same level of energy. It is hence one approach to limit human greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Furthermore, energy efficiency quantifies the conversion of energy from one form to another, with no regard for impacts outside the process. Moreover, efficient energy use is attained chiefly through the use of more efficient technology or process (Moynihan and Barringer 2017).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Kwabena Donkor
    • 1
  • Kevin Mearns
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesUniversity of South Africa (UNISA), UNISA Science CampusJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa

Section editors and affiliations

  • Justin Bishop
    • 1
  1. 1.ArupLondonUK