Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Centralized Versus Decentralized Electrification Pathways

Living reference work entry


Energy access can be broadly defined as the ability to deliver quality energy that is adequate and affordable to make possible the provision of energy services for consumptive and productive uses both at the household and national level. Though there is no single working definition agreed upon at the international level, this definition encompasses the many facets offered by organizations and scholars in the field.


It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide did not have access to electricity in 2017 (IEA 2017). With current scenarios, in 2030, 674 million of the world population will still be living without access to electricity (IEA 2017). The issue is especially dire in sub-Saharan Africa, where the overall electrification rate is only at 38.2% (Blimpo and Cosgrove-Davies 2019). For the 38.2% of the population with electricity access, the average per capita electricity consumption was reported as 317 kWh per year, which was equivalent to...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Haruna Musa Moda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health ProfessionsManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK