Affordable and Clean Energy

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Amanda Lange Salvia, Tony Wall

Community Renewable Energy Systems

  • Arun NarayananEmail author
  • Pedro H. J. Nardelli
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71057-0_114-1
  • 121 Downloads

Definition

The term Community Renewable Energy Systems can be succinctly defined following Klein and Coffey (2016) as follows:

a project to service a group of people at the same geographic location (usually, town size or smaller) with a set of common interests, comprising a self-contained local energy supply system that distributes the energy produced locally (i.e., within the same area) by renewable energy resources; energy management systems and technologies; and methods to share the energy resources, costs, and benefits among all the stakeholders.

Community renewable energy systems typically incorporate some form of peer-to-peer sharing of energy for enhanced efficiency, autonomy, and profits.

Introduction

Today, climate change and environmental pollution are significant challenges that endanger human existence, as well as the natural world. To mitigate their consequences, the global usage of energy, from production to distribution to consumption, must be radically and urgently...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bauwens T, Devine-Wright P (2018) Positive energies? An empirical study of community energy participation and attitudes to renewable energy. Energy Policy 118:612–625.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.03.062. ISSN 0301-4215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baywind Energy Co-operative (2019) About us. https://www.baywind.coop/about-us-3/. Accessed Oct 2019
  3. Bendigo Sustainability Group (2019) About us. https://www.bsg.org.au/about/. Accessed Oct 2019
  4. Blouin MR, Serrano R (2001) A decentralized market with common values uncertainty: non-steady states. Rev Econ Stud 68(2):323–346MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooklyn Microgrid (2017) About Brooklyn Microgrid. https://www.brooklyn.energy. Accessed Dec 2017
  6. Brummer V (2018) Community energy – benefits and barriers: a comparative literature review of community energy in the UK, Germany and the USA, the benefits it provides for society and the barriers it faces. Renew Sust Energ Rev 94:187–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.06.013. ISSN 1364-0321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. C4CE – Coalition for Community Energy (2019) About C4CE. https://c4ce.net.au/. Accessed Jan 2019
  8. Chakraborty S, Ito T, Senjyu T (2014) Smart pricing scheme: a multi-layered scoring rule application. Expert Syst Appl 41(8):3726–3735.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2013.12.002. ISSN 09574174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chakraborty S, Nakamura S, Okabe T (2015) Real-time energy exchange strategy of optimally cooperative microgrids for scale-flexible distribution system. Expert Syst Appl 42(10):4643–4652.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2015.01.017. ISSN 09574174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Community Power Agency, Pingala, Starfish Initiative, Macedon Ranges Sustainability Group, The Hub Foundation in Castlemaine, CORENA, Repower Shoalhaven, Bvendigo Sustainability Group, Environmental Justice Australia (2017) Small scale community solar guide. Technical report, Coalition for Community Energy, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  11. Eitan A, Herman L, Fischhendler I, Rosen G (2019) Community–private sector partnerships in renewable energy. Renew Sust Energ Rev 105:95–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.12.058. ISSN 1364-0321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Energy4All (2019) Our history. https://energy4all.co.uk/about-us/our-history/. Accessed Feb 2019
  13. Farrell J (2016) Beyond sharing: how communities can take ownership of renewable power. Technical report, Institute for Local Self-relianceGoogle Scholar
  14. Gode DK, Sunder S (1993) Allocative efficiency of markets with zero-intelligence traders: market as a partial substitute for individual rationality. J Polit Econ 101(1):119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Golosov M, Lorenzoni G, Tsyvinski A (2014) Decentralized trading with private information. Econometrica 82(3):1055–1091MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guerrero JM, Vasquez JC, Matas J, de Vicuna LG, Castilla M (2011) Hierarchical control of droop-controlled AC and DC microgrids – a general approach toward standardization. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(1):158–172.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2066534. ISSN 0278-0046, 1557-9948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hewitt RJ, Bradley N, Compagnucci AB, Barlagne C, Ceglarz A, Cremades R, McKeen M, Otto IM, Slee B (2019) Social innovation in community energy in Europe: a review of the evidence. Front Energy Res 7:31.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2019.00031. ISSN 2296-598XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hicks J, Ison N (2018) An exploration of the boundaries of “community” in community renewable energy projects: navigating between motivations and context. Energy Policy 113:523–534.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.10.031. ISSN 0301-4215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang Z, Yu H, Peng Z, Zhao M (2015) Methods and tools for community energy planning: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 42:1335–1348.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.042. ISSN 13640321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang Z, Yu H, Peng Z, Feng Y (2017) Planning community energy system in the industry 4.0 era: achievements, challenges and a potential solution. Renew Sust Energ Rev 78:710–721.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.004. ISSN 13640321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) (2018) Community energy: broadening the ownership of renewables. Technical report, IRENA, Abu DhabiGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalagnanam J, Parkes DC (2004) Auctions, bidding and exchange design. In: Hillier FS, Simchi-Levi D, Wu SD, Shen Z-J (eds) Handbook of quantitative supply chain analysis, vol 74. Springer, Boston, pp 143–212.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-7953-55. ISBN 978-1-4757-1074-8; 978-1-4020-7953-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klein SJW, Coffey S (2016) Building a sustainable energy future, one community at a time. Renew Sust Energ Rev 60:867–880.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.129. ISSN 13640321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koirala BP, Koliou E, Friege J, Hakvoort RA, Herder PM (2016) Energetic communities for community energy: a review of key issues and trends shaping integrated community energy systems. Renew Sust Energ Rev 56:722–744.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.080. ISSN 13640321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krog L, Sperling K (2019) A comprehensive framework for strategic energy planning based on Danish and international insights. Energy Strateg Rev 24:83–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.02.005. ISSN 2211-467XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Long C, Wu J, Zhou Y, Jenkins N (2018) Peer-to-peer energy sharing through a two-stage aggregated battery control in a community microgrid. Appl Energy 226:261–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.05.097. ISSN 0306-2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mengelkamp E, Staudt P, Garttner J, Weinhardt C (2017) Trading on local energy markets: a comparison of market designs and bidding strategies. In: 14th international conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  28. Mengelkamp E, Gärttner J, Rock K, Kessler S, Orsini L, Weinhardt C (2018) Designing microgrid energy markets: a case study: the Brooklyn Microgrid. Appl Energy 210:870–880.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.06.054. ISSN 0306-2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mochón A, Sáez Y (2015) Understanding auctions, Springer texts in business and economics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08813-6. ISBN 978-3-319-08812-9 978-3-319-08813-6CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. Narayanan A (2019) Renewable-energy-based single and community microgrids integrated with electricity markets. Doctoral thesis, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, LappeenrantaGoogle Scholar
  31. Nardelli PHJ, Alves H, Pinomaa A, Wahid S, Tome MDC, Kosonen A, Kuhnlenz F, Pouttu A, Carrillo D (2019) Energy Internet via packetized management: enabling technologies and deployment challenges. IEEE Access 7:16909–16924.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2896281. ISSN 2169-3536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nguyen S, Peng W, Sokolowski P, Alahakoon D, Yu X (2018) Optimizing rooftop photovoltaic distributed generation with battery storage for peer-to-peer energy trading. Appl Energy 228:2567–2580.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.07.042. ISSN 0306-2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nicolaisen J, Petrov V, Tesfatsion L (2001) Market power and efficiency in a computational electricity market with discriminatory double-auction pricing. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 5(5):504–523.  https://doi.org/10.1109/4235.956714. ISSN 1089778XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Paudyal P, Munankarmi P, Ni Z, Hansen TM (2019) A hierarchical control framework with a novel bidding scheme for residential community energy optimization. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 11:1.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2019.2927928. ISSN 1949-3053; 1949-3061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Planas E, Andreu J, Gárate JI, de Alegría IM, Ibarra E (2015) AC and DC technology in microgrids: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 43:726–749.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.067. ISSN 13640321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ramachandran B, Srivastava SK, Edrington CS, Cartes DA (2011) An intelligent auction scheme for smart grid market using a hybrid immune algorithm. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(10):4603–4612.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2102319. ISSN 0278-0046, 1557-9948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. REScoop (2019) Community energy map – European projects. https://www.rescoop.eu/european-projects. Accessed Nov 2019
  38. Roby H, Dibb S (2019) Future pathways to mainstreaming community energy. Energy Policy 135:111020.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111020. ISSN 0301-4215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rommel J, Radtke J, von Jorck G, Mey F, Yildiz Ö (2018) Community renewable energy at a crossroads: a think piece on degrowth, technology, and the democratization of the German energy system. J Clean Prod 197:1746–1753.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.11.114. ISSN 0959-6526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Scene (2017) Energy archipelago – a global community energy platform. https://scene.community/blog2/the-end-for-now-energy-archipelago. Accessed Nov 2017
  41. Schumacher K, Krones F, McKenna R, Schultmann F (2019) Public acceptance of renewable energies and energy autonomy: a comparative study in the French, German and Swiss Upper Rhine region. Energy Policy 126:315–332.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.11.032. ISSN 0301-4215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sørensen HC, Hansen J, Vølund P (2001) Experience from the establishment of Middelgrunden 40 MW offshore wind farm, p 5Google Scholar
  43. Sousa T, Soares T, Pinson P, Moret F, Baroche T, Sorin E (2019) Peer-to-peer and community-based markets: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 104:367–378.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.01.036. ISSN 1364-0321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tushar W, Yuen C, Mohsenian-Rad H, Saha T, Poor HV, Wood KL (2018) Transforming energy networks via peer-to-peer energy trading: The potential of game-theoretic approaches. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 35(4):90–111Google Scholar
  45. Tushar W, Saha TK, Yuen C, Smith D, Poor HV (2020) Peer-to-peer trading in electricity networks: an overview. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 11(4):3185–3200.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2020.2969657
  46. United Nations (2016) Paris Agreement. Technical report, United Nations, ParisGoogle Scholar
  47. Urstrom eG Bürgerenergiegenossenschaft (2019) Homepage. https://www.urstrom.de/index.php. Accessed Feb 2019
  48. van der Schoor T, Scholtens B (2019) The power of friends and neighbors: a review of community energy research. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 39:71–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2019.08.004. ISSN 18773435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walker G (2008) What are the barriers and incentives for community-owned means of energy production and use? Energy Policy 36(12):4401–4405.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.032. ISSN 03014215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walker G, Devine-Wright P (2008) Community renewable energy: what should it mean? Energy Policy 36(2):497–500.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.10.019. ISSN 0301-4215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Walker G, Hunter S, Devine-Wright P, Evans B, Fay H (2007) Harnessing community energies: explaining and evaluating community-based localism in renewable energy policy in the UK. Glob Environ Polit 7(2):64–82.  https://doi.org/10.1162/glep.2007.7.2.64. ISSN 15263800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wolinsky A (1990) Information revelation in a market with pairwise meetings. Econometrica 58(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2938332. ISSN 00129682MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  53. Woo JR, Chung S, Lee C-Y, Huh S-Y (2019) Willingness to participate in community-based renewable energy projects: a contingent valuation study in South Korea. Renew Sust Energ Rev 112:643–652.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.06.010. ISSN 1364-0321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) (2016) Headwind and tailwind for community power. Technical report, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  55. Xu X, Jin X, Jia H, Yu X, Li K (2015) Hierarchical management for integrated community energy systems. Appl Energy 160:231–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.08.134. ISSN 0306-2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yildiz Ö, Gotchev B, Holstenkamp L, Müller JR, Radtke J, Welle L (2019) Consumer (co-)ownership in renewables in Germany. In: Lowitzsch J (ed) Energy transition: financing consumer co-ownership in renewables. Springer, Cham, pp 271–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93518-8. ISBN 978-3-319-93518-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yuan C, Lai K, Illindala MS, Haj-ahmed MA, Khalsa AS (2017) Multilayered protection strategy for developing community microgrids in village distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 32(1):495–503.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2016.2544923. ISSN 0885-8977, 1937-4208CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Energy SystemsLUT UniversityLappeenrantaFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Haruna Musa Moda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health ProfessionsManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK