Advertisement

Developing Scientific Inquiry in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

  • Carol K. K. ChanEmail author
  • Yuqin Yang
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

This chapter discusses theory, pedagogy, and design of technology-enhanced learning environments in promoting inquiry in science classrooms. Inquiry refers to both the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and the means of engaging students actively in developing an understanding about science content, science process, and how science develops. Supported by technology, students can be scaffolded to engage in inquiry practices, like those used by scientists, to help them deepen their understanding of science and to develop twenty-first-century educational competencies.

This chapter employs the Learning Sciences research paradigm that emphasizes social-constructivist frameworks and design-based research methodology. We first outline changing theories and frameworks of learning, pedagogy, and assessment, and discuss how they influence the design of technology-based learning environments. We then examine several major research programs, including Knowledge Integration, Project-Based Science, Virtual Environments, and Knowledge Building, all of which focus on the alignment of technology, theory, and pedagogy, and emphasize iterative implementation and design principles. Analysis and comparison of these different programs help illuminate theoretical issues and educational implications and identify challenges to designing technology-enhanced inquiry-based environments. We conclude that theory, pedagogy, and technology need to be integrated, and design-based research can illuminate and support learner processes synergizing theory and practice in real-world classrooms.

Keywords

Technology-enhanced learning environments Inquiry Collaboration Knowledge creation Design-based research 

References

  1. Azevedo, R. (2005). Computer environments as metacognitive tools for enhancing learning. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 193–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell, P., & Linn, M. C. (2000). Scientific arguments as learning artifacts: designing for learning from the web with KIE. International Journal of Science Education, 22(8), 797–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beyer, C. J., Delgado, C., Davis, E. A., & Krajcik, J. (2009). Investigating teacher learning supports in high school biology curricular programs to inform the design of educative curriculum materials. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(9), 977–998.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education: Principles, policy, and practice, 5, 7–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenfeld, P., Fishman, B. J., Krajcik, J., Marx, R. W., & Soloway, E. (2000). Creating usable innovations in systemic reform: Scaling up technology-embedded project-based science in urban Schools. Educational Psychologist, 35(3), 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  7. Carless, D. (2010). From testing to productive student learning: Implementing formative assessment in confucian-heritage settings. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Chan, C. K. K. (2011). Bridging research and practice: Implementing and sustaining knowledge building in Hong Kong classrooms. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 6(2), 147–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, C. K. K. (2013). Collaborative knowledge building: Towards a knowledge creation perspective. In C. E. Hmelo-Silver, C. A. Chinn, C. K. K. Chan, & A. O’Donnell (Eds.), The international handbook of collaborative learning (pp. 437–461., Chapter xii, 516 Pages). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, B., & Hong, H.-Y. (2016). Schools as knowledge-building organizations: Thirty years of design research. Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 266–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, B., & Zhang, J. (2016). Analytics for knowledge creation: Towards epistemic agency and design-mode thinking. Journal of Learning Analytics, 3(2), 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, B., Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2015). Advancing knowledge-building discourse through judgments of promising ideas. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 10(4), 345–366.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-015-9225-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarke-Midura, J., & Dede, C. (2009). Design for scalability: A case study of the River City curriculum. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18, 353–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins, A., Joseph, D., & Bielaczyc, K. (2004). Design research: Theoretical and methodological issues. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 15–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Damşa, C. I. (2014). The multi-layered nature of small-group learning: Productive interactions in object-oriented collaboration. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 9(3), 247–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dawley, L., & Dede, C. (2014). Situated learning in virtual worlds and immersive simulations. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 723–734), New York, Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dede, C., Grotzer, T. A., Kamarainen, A., & Metcalf, S. (2017). EcoXPT: Designing for deeper learning through experimentation in an immersive virtual ecosystem. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(4), 166–178.Google Scholar
  18. Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. D. (1999). Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology and curriculum design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3-4), 391–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eslinger, E., White, B., Frederiksen, J., & Brobst, J. (2008). Supporting inquiry processes with an interactive learning environment: Inquiry Island. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(6), 610–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, C. (2013). Making sense of assessment feedback in higher education. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 70–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Geier, R., Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Fishman, B., Soloway, E., & Clay-Chambers, J. (2008). Standardized test outcomes for students engaged in inquiry-based science curricula in the context of urban reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(8), 922–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greeno, J. G. (2006). Learning in Activity. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (1st ed., pp. 79–96). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Halatchliyski, I., Moskaliuk, J., Kimmerle, J., & Cress, U. (2014). Explaining authors’ contribution to pivotal artifacts during mass collaboration in the Wikipedia’s knowledge base. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 9(1), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Herrenkohl, L. R., Tasker, T., & White, B. Y. (2011). Pedagogical practices to support classroom cultures of scientific inquiry. Cognition and Instruction, 29(1), 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jackson, S. L., Stratford, S. J., Krajcik, J., & Soloway E. (1994). Making dynamic modeling accessible to precollege science students. Interactive Learning Environment, 4(3), 233–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobson, M. J., Kim, B., Miao, C., Shen, Z., & Chavez, M. (2010). Design perspectives for learning in virtual worlds. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacobson, M. J., Taylor, C. E., & Richards, D. (2016). Computational scientific inquiry with virtual worlds and agent-based models: New ways of doing science to learn science. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(8), 2080–2108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jeong, H., & Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2016). Seven affordances of computer-supported collaborative learning: How to support collaborative learning? How can technologies help? Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ketelhut, D. J., Nelson, B. C., Clark-midura, J., & Dede, C. (2010). A multi-user virtual environment for building and assessing higher order inquiry skills in science. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 56–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim, M. C., & Hannafin, M. J. (2011). Scaffolding problem solving in technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs): Bridging research and theory with practice. Computers & Education, 56(2), 403–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kolodner, J., Krajcik, J., Reiser, B., Edelson, D., & Starr, M. (2009-2013). Project based inquiry science. It’s about time. Mt. Kisco: Middle School Science Curriculum Materials.Google Scholar
  33. Krajcik, J. S., & Shin, N. (2014). Project-based learning. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (2nd ed., pp. 275–297). New York: The Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leelawong, K., & Biswas, G. (2008). Designing learning by teaching agents: The Betty’s brain system. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 18, 181–208.Google Scholar
  36. Linn, M. C., & Eylon, B. S. (2011). Science learning and instruction. Taking advantage of technology to promote knowledge integration. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Linn, M. C., Davis, E. A., & Bell, P. E. (2004). Internet environments for science education. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  38. Linn, M. C., Lee, H. S., Tinker, R., Husic, F., & Chiu, J. L. (2006). Teaching and assessing knowledge integration in science. Science, 313, 1049–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  40. National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Washington, DC: National Academics Press.Google Scholar
  41. Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2004). Models of innovative knowledge communities and the three metaphors of learning. Review of Educational Research, 74, 557–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Quintana, C., & Zhang, M. (2004). The Digital IdeaKeeper: Extending digital library services to scaffold online inquiry. In Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  43. Quintana, C., Zhang, M., & Krajcik, J. (2005). A framework for supporting metacognitive aspects of online inquiry through software-based scaffolding. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reiser, B. J. (2004). Scaffolding complex learning: The mechanisms of structuring and problematizing student work. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13, 273–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salomon, G. (Ed.). (1993). Distributed cognition: Psychological and educational considerations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Sawyer, R. K. (Ed.). (2006). The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Sawyer, R. K. (2014). Introduction: The new sciences of learning. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (2nd ed., pp. 1–20). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(3), 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2006). Knowledge building: Theory, pedagogy, and technology. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 97–115). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2014). Knowledge building and knowledge creation: theory, pedagogy, and technology. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (2nd ed., pp. 397–417). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Scardamalia, M. (2002). Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge. In B. Smith (Ed.), Liberal education in a knowledge society (pp. 67–98). Chicago, IL: Open Court.Google Scholar
  52. Schwartz, D. L., & Arena, D. (2013). Measuring what matters most: Choice-based assessments for the digital age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  53. Shepard, L. E. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shum, S. B., & Ferguson, R. (2012). Social learning analytics. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 3–26.Google Scholar
  55. Slotta, J. D., & Linn, M. C. (2009). Wise Science: Web-based inquiry in the classroom. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  56. Stahl, G. (2006). Group cognition: Computer support for building collaborative knowledge. Cambridge. MIT Press.Google Scholar
  57. van Aalst, J., & Chan, C. K. K. (2007). Student-directed assessment of knowledge building using electronic portfolios. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16(2), 175–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. van Aalst, J., Chan, C., Tian, S. W., Teplovs, C., Chan, Y. Y., & Wan, W.-S. (2012). The knowledge connections analyzer. In J. van Aalst, K. Thompson, M. J. Jacobson, & P. Reimann (Eds.), The future of learning: Proceedings of the 10th international conference of the learning sciences (ICLS 2012) (Vol. 2, pp. 361–365). Sydney: ISLS.Google Scholar
  59. Wallace, R., Kupperman, J., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2000). Science on the Web: Students online in a sixth-grade classroom. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9, 75–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. White, B. Y., & Frederiksen, J. R. (1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16(1), 3–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. White, B., Frederiksen, J., & Collins, A. (2009). The interplay of scientific inquiry and metacognition: More than and marriage of convenience. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education (pp. 175–205). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor Francis.Google Scholar
  62. Yang, Y., van Aalst, J., Chan, C. K. K., & Tian, W. (2016). Reflective assessment in knowledge building by students with low academic achievement. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 11(3), 281–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhang, J., Scardamalia, M., Reeve, R., & Messina, R. (2009). Designs for collective cognitive responsibility in knowledge-building communities. The Journal of the Leaning Sciences, 18(1), 7–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang, J., Tao, D., Chen, M. H., Sun, Y., Judson, D., & Naqvi, S. (2016). Co-organizing the collective journey of inquiry with Idea Thread Mapper. Journal of the Learning Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2018.1444992.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Central China Normal UniversityWuhanChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kwok-Wing Lai
    • 1
  • Keryn Pratt
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Otago College of EducationDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.University of Otago College of EducationNorth DunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations