The Twenty-First Century Curriculum: Issues and Challenges

  • Ola ErstadEmail author
  • Joke Voogt
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)


In this chapter we review key conceptual frameworks that address the challenges of society in contemporary discussions about the curriculum. The central question guiding the chapter is “What should be taught and learned in school curricula in the 21st century.” Four meta-reviews are presented that analyze the contribution of major conceptual frameworks to this discussion. After identifying the key competences important for the twenty-first century, the focus of the chapter shifts to roles for new technologies in the curriculum. Issues that hamper the curriculum to change in directions that are considered important for teaching and learning are identified. We finalize with new perspectives on curriculum and curriculum development in the twenty-first century society.


21st century curriculum Key competences Information and communication technologies Meta-reviews Curriculum development 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EducationUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Windesheim University of Applied SciencesZwolleThe Netherlands

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joke Voogt
    • 1
  • Ola Erstad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Child Development and EducationUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.University of OsloOsloNorway

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