Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Femicide and the Continuum of Gender Based Violence

  • Sheena SwemmerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70060-1_44-1

Definition

Femicide can be defined as the intentional murder of a female because she is a female and/or identifies as female. According to the United Nations Latin American Model Protocol for the investigation of gender-related killings of women (femicide/feminicide), the term “femicide” comes from feminist activist, Diana Russell, who in the 1970s used the term to express an alternative to the neutral term “homicide.” This was with the political intention of recognizing that there are discrimination, inequality, and systematic violence that occur against women which in its most extreme form culminates in their death (United Nations 2015b).

The definition of femicide has also on occasion been interpreted expansively to include infant girls, girl children, and women. Yet, the narrower definition, inclusive of only women, is that which is found predominantly in legislation and policies in different jurisdictions around the world (World Health Organization 2012).

There are numerous forms...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Abrahams N et al (2012) Every eight hours: intimate femicide in South Africa 10 years later. South African Medical Research Council Research Brief, Tygerberg pp 1–4Google Scholar
  2. Babu GR, Babu BV (2011) Dowry deaths: a neglected public health issue in India. Int Health 3:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campbell JC et al (2003) Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study. Am J Public Health 93:1089–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell JC et al (2009) The danger assessment: validation of a lethality risk assessment instrument for intimate partner femicide. J Interpers Violence 24:653–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998Google Scholar
  6. Dowry Prohibitions Act 1961Google Scholar
  7. Erturk Y (2016) Violence without borders: paradigm, policy and praxis concerning violence against women. Women’s Learning Partnership, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  8. Estévez A (2016) Latin American women’s problem: we keep getting murdered. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/latin-american-womens-problem-we-keep-getting-murdered-67351. Accessed 19 Oct 2018
  9. Fragoso M, Julia E (2008) Violencia extrema y existencia precaria en Ciudad Juárez. Frontera norte 24(48):191–199Google Scholar
  10. Fondation Scelles (2016) Annual Report ‘Prostitution: Exploitation, persecution, repression’ http://prostitutionresearch.com/pub_author/fondation-scelles-2016-annual-report/
  11. Foundation Scelles (2016) Prostitution: exploitation, persecution, repression. http://www.cap-international.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Fondation-Scelles-Prostitution-4th-global-report-EN.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2018
  12. General Assembly (2001) Agenda item 107 00 56335 Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee (A/55/595 and Corr.1 and 2)] 55/66. Working towards the elimination of crimes against women committed in the name of honour. 31 January 2011. https://documents-ddsny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N00/563/35/PDF/N0056335.pdf?OpenElement
  13. Gordon C (2016) Intimate partner violence is everyone’s problem, but how should we approach it in a clinical setting? S Afr Med J 106:962–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hardesty, Jennifer L et al. (2008) How children and their caregivers adjust after intimate partner femicide. J Fam Issues 29(1):100–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Indian Penal Code 1860Google Scholar
  16. Jeyaseelan V et al (2015) Dowry demand and harassment: prevalence and risk factors in India. J Biosoc Sci 47:727–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kasturirangan A et al (2004) The impact of culture and minority on Women’s experience of domestic violence. Trauma Violence Abuse 5:318–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martinelli M, Olle-Goig JE (2012) Female genital mutilation Djibouti. Afr Health Sci 12:412–415Google Scholar
  19. Mathews S et al (2004) Every six hours a woman is killed by her intimate partner: a national study of female homicide in South Africa. Gender and Health Research Group, Medical research Council Policy Brief, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  20. McFarlane J et al (2002) Intimate partner stalking and Femicide: urgent implications for Women’s safety. Behav Sci Law 20:51–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mossman E (2007) International approached to decriminalizing legalising prostitution. Crime and Justice Research Centre. https://prostitution.procon.org/sourcefiles/newzealandreport.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2018
  22. Nasrullah M et al (2009) The epidemiological patterns of hour killings of women in Pakistan. Eur J Pub Health 19:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nour NM (2008) Female genital cutting: a persisting practice. Rev Obstet Gynecol 1:135–139Google Scholar
  24. Peter PG et al (2006) Children as victims and witnesses of domestic homicide: lessons learned from domestic violence death review committees. Juv Fam Court J 57:13–28Google Scholar
  25. Pinelo A (2015) A theoretical approach to the concept of femicide/feminicide. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/320468. Accessed 19 Oct 2018
  26. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (1961) Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 Criminal Procedure Code (2001) 1898Google Scholar
  27. Quinet K (2011) Prostitutes as victims of serial homicide: trends and cases characteristics, 1970–2009. Homicide Stud 15(1):74–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Report of the Special Rapporteur (2012) Human Rights Council Thirty-fifth session 6-23 June 2017 Agenda item 3 Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development. https://www.un.org/unispal/document/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-onviolence-against-women-its-causes-and-consequences-on-her-mission-to-israel/
  29. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 1998Google Scholar
  30. Sen G, and Mukherjee A (2014) No empowerment without rights, no rights without politics: Gender-equality, MDGs and the post-2015 development agenda. J Hum Dev Capabilities 15(2-3):188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sev’er A, Yurdakul G (2001) Culture of honor, culture of change: a feminist analysis of honor killings in rural Turkey. Violence Against Women 7:964–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sharma BR, Harish D, Sharma V, Vij K (2002) Kitchen accidents vis-a-vis dowry deaths. Burns. 2002 May 1;28(3):250–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh S (2017) Honour killings in India: need for a composite and strict legal framework. Int J Interdiscip Multidiscip Stud 4:276–283Google Scholar
  34. SWEAT (2013) Estimating the size of the sex worker population in South Africa, 2013. http://www.sweat.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Sex-Workers-Size-Estimation-Study-2013.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2018
  35. Tinker, AG (1998) Improving women’s health in Pakistan (English). Health, nutrition, and population series. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/225041468757537910/Improving-womens-health-in-Pakistan
  36. UN Commission on Human Rights (2002) Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2001/49: cultural practices in the family that are violent towards women E/CN.4/2002/83. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3d6ce3cc0.html. Accessed 8 July 2018
  37. UN General Assembly (2012) Manjoo, Rashida. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. UN, 2012.Google Scholar
  38. United Nations (2015a) Millennium development goals: 2015 progress charts. https://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20PC%20final.pdf. Accessed 11 Apr 2019
  39. United Nations (2015b) Latin American model protocol for the investigation of gender-related killings of women. http://caribbean.unwomen.org/en/materials/publications/2015/07/latin-american-model-protocol-for-the-investigation-of-gender-related-killings-of-women. Accessed 8 July 2018
  40. United Nations (2018) No woman should dies because of her gender, Deputy Secretary-General says at event to launch Latin American Regional Anti-Femicide Programme. https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/dsgsm1224.doc.htm. Accessed 11 Apr 2019
  41. United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (2009) Good practices in legislation on “harmful practices” against women. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw_legislation_2009/Final%20report%20EGMGPLVAW.pdf. Accessed 8 July 2018
  42. Vetten L (1996) “Man shoots wife”: intimate femicide in Gauteng, South Africa. Crime Conflict 6:1–4Google Scholar
  43. Watts C, Zimmerman C (2002) “Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.” The lancet 359(9313): 1232–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA (1997) Female genital mutilation: a joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41903. Accessed 8 July 2018Google Scholar
  45. World Health Organization (2012) Understanding and addressing violence against women: sexual violence. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77432/?sequence=1. Accessed 8 July 2018
  46. World Health Organization (2018) Female genital mutilation. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/female-genital-mutilation. Accessed 8 July 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Applied Legal StudiesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Section editors and affiliations

  • Julia Mambo
    • 1
  1. 1.Council for Scientific and Industrial Research - Natural Resources and EnvironmentJohannesburgSouth Africa