Gender Equality

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Exclusive Breastfeeding: Challenges and Way Forward

  • Aashima DabasEmail author
  • Harish ChellaniEmail author
  • Tapan Kumar JenaEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70060-1_23-1

Synonyms

Definition

Exclusive breastfeeding – Administration of only breast milk to an infant without any additional food or drink not even water.

Noncommunicable diseases – Chronic diseases which are not transmitted from one person to another. These include conditions like diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.

Obesity – It is a state of malnutrition which results from excess intake of macronutrients with decreased energy expenditure. It is measured as age- and gender-specific cutoffs of body mass index in children.

Introduction

Breastfeeding is the essential right of every newborn which is often not granted. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Breastfeeding is emphasized as it is advantageous to health of both baby and mother (WHO 2011). The...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alves JG, Fiqueiroa JN, Meneses J et al (2012) Breastfeeding protects against type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case-sibling study. Breastfeed Med 7(1):25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) Section on breastfeeding: policy statement: breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 129:e827–e841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagci Bosi AT, Eriksen KG, Sobko T, Wijnhoven TMA, Breda J (2015) Breastfeeding practices and policies in WHO European Region Member States. Public Health Nutr 19(4):753–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balogun OO, O’Sullivan EJ, McFadden A et al (2016) Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD001688Google Scholar
  5. Bartick M (2010) The economic ramifications of improving maternity practices. Breastfeed Med 5(5):245–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartick M (2011) Breastfeeding and the US economy. Breastfeed Med 6(5):313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biagoli F (2003) Returning to work while breastfeeding. Am Fam Physician 68(11):2199–2206Google Scholar
  8. Breastfeeding and sustainable development goals factsheet. UNICEF (2016a) Available at: http://www.worldbreastfeedingweek.org/pdf/BreastfeedingandSDGsMessaging%20WBW2016%20Shared.pdf
  9. Brown PA, Kaiser KL, Nailon RE (2014) Integrating quality improvement and translational research models to increase exclusive breastfeeding. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 43(5):545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Busch DW, Logan K, Wilkinson A (2014) Clinical practice breastfeeding recommendations for primary care: applying a Tri-core breastfeeding conceptual model. J Pediatr Health Care 28(6):486–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butte NF, Lopez-Alarcon MG, Garza C (2002) Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life. World health organization. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42519/1/9241562110.pdf?ua=1
  12. Coutsoudis A, Coovadia HM, King J (2009) The breast milk brand: promotion of child survival in the face of formula-milk marketing. Lancet 374:423–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Friedman J, Alam SM, Shen X et al (2012) Isolation of HIV-1 neutralizing mucosal monoclonal antibodies from human colostrum. PLoS One 7(5):e37648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ganapathy V, Hay JW, Kim JH (2012) Costs of necrotising enterocolitis and cost-effectiveness of exclusively human milk based products in feeding extremely premature infants. Breastfeed Nutr 7(1):29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Global Breastfeeding initiative. UNICEF (2016b). https://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_98470.html. Accessed on 10 Mar 2018
  16. Gregg DJ, Dennison BA, Restina K (2015) Breastfeeding-friendly Erie County: establishing a baby Café network. J Hum Lact 31(4):592–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Habicht JP, DaVanzo J, Butz WP (1986) Does breastfeeding really save lives, or are apparent benefits due to biases? Am J Epidemiol 123:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harit D, Faridi MMA, Aggarwal A et al (2007) Lipid profile of term infants on exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding: a comparative study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heymann J, Raub A, Earle A (2013) Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis. Bull World Health Organ 91:398–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Horwood C, Haskins L, Engebretsen IM et al (2018) Improved rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 14 weeks of age in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa: what are the challenges now? BMC Public Health 18(1):757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) (2005) The reports. http://www.ibfan.org/site2005/Pages/article.php?art_id=298&iui=1. Accessed Dec 4, 2008
  22. Issaka AI, Agho KE, Renzaho AM (2017) Prevalence of key breastfeeding indicators in 29 sub-Saharan African countries: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2010–2015). BMJ Open 7:e014145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim SK, Park S, Oh J, Kim J, Ahn S (2018) Interventions promoting exclusive breastfeeding up to six months after birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Nurs Stud 80:94–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kimani-Murage EW, Griffiths PL, Wekesah FM et al (2017) Effectiveness of home-based nutritional counselling and support on exclusive breastfeeding in urban poor settings in Nairobi: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Glob Health 13(1):90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kramer MS, Aboud F, Mironova E et al (2008) Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) study group. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:578–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lambert AW, Harris LC, Wang C et al (2018) Community-based breastfeeding support with the tiger babies breastfeeding support tent. Nurs Womens Health 22(2):138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lancet survival series- Breastfeeding (2016). Available at: https://www.unicef.bg/assets/PDFs/2016/ECD/Breastfeeding_PDF.PDF
  28. Lee N (2015) Updated thoughts on the monetary value of human milk. Clin Lact 64(4):153–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leon-Cava N, Lutter C, Ross J et al (2002) Quantifying the benefits of breastfeeding: a summary of the evidence. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicholas MR, Roux GM (2004) Maternal perspectives on postpartum return to the workplace. J Obs Gynae Neonatal Nurs 33(4):463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nkonki L, Daniels K, PROMISE-EBF study group (2010) Selling a service: experiences of peer supporters while promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa. Int Breastfeed J 5:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Omer-Salim A, Suri S, Dadhich JP et al (2015) Negotiating the tensions of having to attach and detach concurrently: a qualitative study on combining breastfeeding and employment in public education and health sectors in New Delhi, India. Midwifery 31(4):473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH et al (2005) Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence. Pediatrics 115:1367–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pereira PF, Alfenas RC, Araújo MR (2014) Does breastfeeding influence the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in children? A review of current evidence. Jour Pediatr (Rio) 90(1):7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pérez-Escamilla R, Martinez JL, Segura-Pérez S (2016) Impact of the baby-friendly hospital initiative on breastfeeding and child health outcomes: a systematic review. Matern Child Nutr 12(3):402–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Piwoz E, Humphrey J, Tavengwa N, LLiff P, Marinda E, Zunguza C et al (2007) The impact of safer breastfeeding practices on postnatal HIV-1 transmission in Zimbabwe. Am J Public Health 97(7):1249–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Puri S, Fernandez S, Puranik A et al (2017) Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India. BMC Public Health 17(S2):461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Riordan JM (1997) The cost of not breastfeeding: a commentary. J Hum Lact 13(2):93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seid AM, Yesuf ME, Koye DN (2013) Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices and associated factors among mothers in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional survey. Int Breastfeed J 8:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sinha B, Chowdhury R, Upadhyay RP et al (2017) Integrated interventions delivered in health systems, home, and community have the highest impact on breastfeeding outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. J Nutr 147(11):2179S–2187SGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith JP (2013) Lost milk: counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product. J Hum Lact 29(4):537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. UNICEF- Indian statistics (2012). Available at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_statistics.html. Accessed on 10 Apr 2014
  43. Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJD et al (2016) Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect- Lancet breastfeeding series group. Lancet 387:475–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wainaina CW, Wanjohi M, Wekesah F, Woolhead G, Kimani-Murage E (2018) Exploring the experiences of middle income mothers in practicing exclusive breastfeeding in Nairobi, Kenya. Matern Child Health J 22(4):608–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weimer J (2001) The economic benefits of breastfeeding: a review and analysis. Economic research division. USDAGoogle Scholar
  46. World Health Organization (2011) Exclusive breastfeeding for six months best for babies everywhere. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2011/breastfeeding_20110115/en/index.html. Accessed on 20 Apr 2015
  47. World Health Organization (2017) Guideline: protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in facilities providing maternity and newborn services. WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  48. Yourkavitch JM, Alvey JL, Prosnitz DM, Thomas JC (2017) Engaging men to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding: a descriptive review of 28 projects in 20 low- and middle-income countries from 2003 to 2013. J Health Popul Nutr 36(1):43CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsMaulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak HospitalNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Safdarjang Hospital & Vardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Health SciencesIndira Gandhi National Open UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chhabi Kumar

There are no affiliations available