Affect, or affective state, is a psychophysiological construct that includes three underlying dimensions: (i) valence, the positive-to-negative evaluation; (ii) motivational intensity, the push/pull urge from a stimulus; and (iii) physiological arousal, the level of activation of the sympathetic nervous system (Harmon-Jones et al. 2013).
Affect regulation, or emotion regulation (ER), is defined as strategic and automatic processes that modify the frequency, intensity, duration, and expression of an affective response (Gross 2014). These two terms are interchangeably used, despite the definition of emotion regulation is inconclusive (Siener and Kerns 2012). According to Gross and Jazaieri (2014), affect regulation can be either implicit in regulating one’s own affect or explicit in regulating others’ affect. Emotional regulation strategies are categorized into adaptive and maladaptive, based on individual differences and...
- Boller F (2005) Alajouanine’s painter: Paul-Elie Gernez. In J. Bogousslavsky & F. Boller (Eds.), Neurological disorders in famous artists. Basel, Karger, pp 92–100Google Scholar
- Carr R (2008) Sensory processes and responses. In: Art therapy and clinical neuroscience. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London/Philadelphia, pp 43–61Google Scholar
- Gross JJ (2014) Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In Handbook of emotion regulation. Guilford Press, New York, pp 3–20Google Scholar
- Karlsson H (2012) Psychotherapy increases the amount of serotonin receptors in the brains of patients with major depressive disorder. In: Psychodynamic psychotherapy research. Springer, Totowa, pp 233–238Google Scholar
- Liu A, Miller B (2008) Visual art and brain. In: Handbook of clinical neurology. Memory and AgingCenter, University of California, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- Schore AN (2009) Right-brain affect regulation – an essential mechanism of development, trauma, dissociation, and psychotherapy. In: Fosha D, Siegal DJ, Solomon MF (eds) The healing power of emotion: affective neuroscience, development & clinical practice. W.W. Norton, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
- Thase M (2009) Psychotherapies for depression in adults: a review of recent development. In: Depressive disorders. WPA series in evidence & experience in psychiatry, United Kingdom, pp 95–131Google Scholar