Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Lauren R. Shapiro, Marie-Helen Maras

Criminals: White-Collar Crimes

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_117-1
  • 1.4k Downloads

Definition

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI 2019; see chapter “Law: Criminal” in this encyclopedia) defines white-collar criminals as business and government professionals who commit crimes that are “characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust and are not dependent on the application or threat of physical force or violence” and have a financial motivation rooted in the desire “to obtain or avoid losing money, property, or services or to secure a personal or business advantage.”

Introduction

The terms white-collar criminal and white-collar crimehave been discussed conceptually and theoretically since Edwin H. Sutherland coined the terms 80 years ago. The widely accepted literature in criminology held that crimes were committed by people from low socioeconomic communities or by people with psychological or biological problems, making any other possibility a radical concept at least then. Over the years, the definition of what constitutes white-collar crime has...

Keywords

Crime Criminal White-collar crime White-collar criminal 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Association of Certified Fraud Examiners/ACFE. (2018). Report to the Nations: 2018 Global Study on Occupational Fraud and Abuse. Retrieved on May 4 2019 from https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/acfepublic/2018-report-to-the-nations.pdf
  2. Benson, M. L. (1985). Denying the guilty mind accounting for involvement in a white collar crime. Criminology, 23, 583–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson, M., & Gottschalk, P. (2015). Gender and white-collar crime in Norway: An empirical study of media reports. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 43(4), 535–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson, M. L., & Simpson, S. S. (2009). White-collar crime: An opportunity perspective, criminology and justice series. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blickle, G., Schlegel, A., Fassbender, P., & Klein, U. (2006). Some personality correlates of business white-collar crime. Applied Psychology, 55(2), 220–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruce, A. S., & Becker, P. J. (2007). State-corporate crime and the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant. Western Criminology Review, 8(2), 29–43.Google Scholar
  7. Bucy, P. H., Formby, E., Raspanti, M. S., & Rooney, K. E. (2008). Why do they do it? – The motives, mores and character of white-collar criminals. St. Johns Law Review, 82, 401–457.Google Scholar
  8. CDC [The Center for Disease Control and Prevention]. (2019). Opioid overdose: Understanding the epidemic. Retrieved on August 14, 2019 from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/epidemic/index.html
  9. Cohen, S., Blades, E., & Tacopino, J. (March 27, 2017). Investor burned by Madoff leaps to death from luxury hotel balcony. New York Post https://nypost.com/2017/03/27/man-leaps-to-death-from-sofitel-hotel/
  10. Coleman, J. W. (1987). Toward an integrated theory of white-collar crime. American Journal of Sociology, 93(2), 406–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cressey, D. (1953). Other people's money: The social psychology of embezzlement. New York: Free.Google Scholar
  12. Croall, H. (2009). White collar crime, consumers and victimization. Crime, Law & Social Change, 51(1), 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cullen, F., Hartman, J., & Jonson, C. (2009). Bad guys: Why the public supports punishing white-collar offenders. Crime, Law & Social Change, 51(1), 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daly, K. (1989). Gender and varieties of white-collar crime. Criminology, 27, 769–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dhami, M. (2007). White-collar prisoners’ perceptions of audience reaction. Deviant Behavior, 28, 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FBI. (2019). White-collar crime. Retrieved on May 5, 2019 from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/white-collar-crime
  17. Fishman, S. (Feb. 25, 2011), The Madoff Tapes, N.Y. MAGAZINE http://nymag.com/news/features/berniemadoff-2011-3/
  18. Friedrichs, D. O. (1992). White collar crime and the definitional quagmire: A provisional solution. The Journal of Human Justice, 3(2), 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Friedrichs, D. O. (2010). Trusted criminals: White collar crime in contemporary society (4th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  20. Geis, G. (1972). Criminal penalties for corporate criminals. Criminal Law Bulletin, 8, 377–392.Google Scholar
  21. Gottschalk, P. (2014). Characteristics of rich white-collar criminals: An empirical study of a national sample. International Journal of Ethics, 10(3), 229–238.Google Scholar
  22. Hadland, S. E., Rivera-Aguirre, A., Marshall, B. D. L., & Cerdá, M. (2019). Association of pharmaceutical industry marketing of opioid products with mortality from opioid-related overdoses. JAMA Network Open, 2(1), e186007. Retrieved on August 15, 2019 from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2720914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huff, R., Desilets, C., & Kane, J. (2010). The 2010 national public survey on white collar crime. Fairmont: National White Collar Crime Center. Retrieved from https://www.nw3c.org/docs/research/2010-national-public-survey-on-white-collar-crime.pdf?sfvrsn=e51bbb5d_8.Google Scholar
  24. Katz, R. (2012). Environmental pollution: Corporate crime and cancer mortality. Contemporary Justice Review, 15(1), 97–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Memmott, M. (October 27, 2011). ‘Horrific’ Situation Led Bernard And Ruth Madoff To Try Suicide, She Says. NPR: The Two Way. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2011/10/27/141749628/horrific-situation-led-bernard-and-ruth-madoff-to-try-suicide-she-says
  26. Menard, S., Morris, R. G., Gerber, J., & Covey, H. C. (2011). Distribution and correlates of self-reported crimes of trust. Deviant Behavior, 32(10), 877–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moore, E., & Mills, M. (1990). The neglected victims and unexamined costs of white-collar crime. Crime and Delinquency, 36(3), 408–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paternoster, R., & Simpson, S. S. (1996). Sanction threats and appeals to morality: Testing a rational choice model of corporate crime. Law & Society Review, 30, 549–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Payne, B. K. (2018). White-collar cybercrime: White-collar crime, cybercrime, or both? Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 19(3), 16–32.Google Scholar
  30. Perri, F. S. (2016). Red-collar crime. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 8(1), 61–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Piquero, N. L., Exum, M. L., & Simpson, S. (2005). Integrating the desire for control and rational choice in a corporate crime context. Justice Quarterly, 22, 252–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Piquero, N. L., Schoepfer, A., & Langton, L. (2008). Completely out of control or the desire to be in complete control? How low self-control and the desire for control relate to corporate offending. Crime & Delinquency, 56(4), 627–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Price, M., & Norris, D. M. (2009). White collar crime: Corporate and securities and commodities fraud. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37(4), 538–544.Google Scholar
  34. Ragatz, L. L., Fremouw, W., & Baker, E. (2012). The psychological profile of white-collar offenders: Demographics, criminal thinking, psychopathic traits, and psychopathology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(7), 978–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saxby, P., & Anil, R. (2012). Financial loss and suicide. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 19(2), 74–76.Google Scholar
  36. Schoepfer, A., & Piquero, N. (2006). Exploring white-collar crime and the American dream: A partial test of institutional anomie theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(3), 227–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shapiro, S. P. (1990). Collaring the crime, not the criminal: Reconsidering the concept of white collar crime. American Sociological Review, 55, 346–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shover, N., & Wright, J. (2001). Crimes of privilege. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Shover, N., Fox, G. L., & Mills, M. (1994). Long-term consequences of victimization by white-collar crime. Justice Quarterly, 11(1), 75–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sutherland, E. H. (1940). White-collar criminality. American Sociological Review, 5, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sutherland, E. H. (1945). Is “White collar crime” crime? American Sociological Review, 10(2), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sykes, G., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22(6), 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wheeler, S., Weisburd, D. L., Waring, E., & Bode, N. (1988). White collar crimes and criminals (July 18, 2015). American Criminal Law Review, 25, 331–357.Google Scholar

Further Readings

  1. Brickey, K. F., & Taub, J. (2017). Corporate and white collar crime: Cases and materials. New York: Wolters Kluwer.Google Scholar
  2. Cengiz, M., & Roth, M. P. (2019). The illicit economy in Turkey: How criminals, terrorists, and the Syrian conflict fuel underground markets. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  3. Edelhertz, H., & National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. (1970). The nature, impact, and prosecution of white-collar crime. Washington, DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
  4. Kauzlarich, D., & Rothe, D. L. (2014). Crimes of the powerful. In G. Bruinsma & D. Weisburd (Eds.), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice (pp. 778–786). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Pontell, H. N., & Rosoff, S. M. (2009). White-collar delinquency. Crime Law Social Change, 51(1), 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Wheeler, S. (1992). The problem of white-collar motivation. In K. Schlegel & D. Weisburd (Eds.), White-collar crime reconsidered (pp. 108–123). Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Criminal Justice DepartmentState University of New York (SUNY)PlattsburghUSA