Zero Hunger

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Contribution of Forest Ecosystem Services Toward Food Security and Nutrition

  • Cliff S. DlaminiEmail author
Living reference work entry


Forest ecosystem services can be explained in three interrelated frameworks i.e. (i) Natural Resource Accounting framework (NRA) and/or Non-timber Forest Products framework, which entail direct use benefits, indirect use benefits and intermediate use services, (ii) Ecosystem Services (ES) which comprises ecosystem processes (supporting services) and ecosystem services (provisioning services, regulating services and cultural services), and (iii) Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) (Dlamini and Samboko 2017).

The working definition of food security for this chapter was adopted from the World Food Summit of 1996. The World Food Summit definition states that: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (World Food Summit 1996).


This chapter discusses how forest ecosystem services (FES) can contribute...


Forest ecosystem Food security Environmental sustainability Biodiversity Trees 
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eswatini National Trust CommissionLobambaSwaziland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vincent Onguso Oeba

There are no affiliations available