Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Agricultural Extension Systems Toward SDGs 2030: Zero Hunger

Living reference work entry



Extension as an advisory process is as old as mankind. Sitting together, discussing, and searching for wise decisions and better solutions is a social activity of typical human character (Hoffmann 2009). Although agricultural extension has roots as far back as 1800 BC, formal extension in most countries did not start until the late 1800s AD. According to Black (2000), there is no commonly agreed definition of extension. Based on van den Ban and Hawkins (1996), “… extension involves the conscious use of communication of information to help people form sound opinions and make good decisions.” Agricultural extension (also known as agricultural advisory services) refers to a crucial, nonformal educational function that aims to enhance agricultural productivity, increase food security, and improve rural livelihoods by acting...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran