Nanofluids Containing Titanium Dioxide: Thermo-physical Properties and Energy Saving Applications

  • Kin Yuen LeongEmail author
  • W. H. Azmi
Reference work entry


Heat transfer fluids such as water, water/ethylene glycol mixtures, and oil are commonly used in thermal system as the medium to transmit heat from one place to another. These fluids are low in cost and widely available in the market, but exhibit low thermal conductivity. Nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) are added to improve the thermal conductivity of these base fluids. Suspension of nanoparticles in a base fluid is known as nanofluid. Therefore, this chapter is dedicated to review the thermo-physical properties of TiO2 nanofluid, specifically the thermal conductivity, viscosity, density, and specific heat and its energy saving applications. Lastly, the conclusion as well as the future outlook of TiO2 nanofluids are presented.


Nanofluids Titanium dioxide Thermo-physical Energy saving 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Pertahanan Nasional MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PahangPekanMalaysia

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