TLR5 (Toll-Like Receptor 5)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that play an important role during infections and diseases. Upon recognition of specific microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or self molecules, TLRs initiate signaling cascade that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and molecules necessary for cross-priming of T-cell-dependent immune responses. TLR5 was first reported in humans (Rock et al. 1998), and its location was mapped on chromosome 1. Later in the year 2000, mouse TLR5 was identified and characterized using gene cloning approach (Sebastiani et al. 2000). Hayashi et al., in 2001, showed that innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated through TLR5 (Hayashi et al. 2001). TLR5 recognizes monomeric form of flagella as its ligand and initiates signaling program leading to the...
I thank Prof. Stephen McSorley and Prof. Sangdun Choi for giving me this wonderful opportunity to contribute this book chapter in the second edition of encyclopedia of signaling molecules.
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